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45 terms

Nutrition - Ch. 9, Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight

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overweight (BMI range)
BMI 25 - 29.9
underweight (BMI range)
BMI below 18.5
adipose tissue
body's fat tissue. Synthesizes and secretes leptin involved in appetite regulation
body composition
proportions of muscle, bone, fat, and other tissue that make up a person's total body weight
obesity (BMI range)
overfatness with adverse health effects, BMI 30 or higher
when does underweightness threaten a person?
during a famine or when they have to fight a disease
wasting
progressive, relentless loss of the body's tissues that accompanies certain dieases and shortens survival time
extreme obesity (BMI)
clinically severe overweight, very high risks to health; BMI 40 and above (aka morbid obesity)
adipokines
protein hormones made and released by visceral adipose tissue - help regulate inflammatory processes and energy metabolism in the tissues (associated with inflammation and diseases associated with central obesity)
visceral fat
fat stored within the abdominal cavity in association with the internal abdominal organs
subcutaneous fat
fat stored directly under the skin
central obesity
excess fat in the abdomen and around the trunk
metabolic syndrome
a comination of central obesity, high blood glucose (insulin resistance), high blood pressure, altered blood lipids that greatly increase the risk of heart disease
body mass index (BMI) and equation
indicator of obesity or underweight:
weight (lbs)x703 / height squared (inches)
2.2 lbs in 1 kg
waist circumference (and thresholds)
measurement of abdominal girth that indicates visceral fatness (healthy = under 40 in for men and 35 in for women)
What are the 3 components of energy expenditure?
basal metabolism, voluntary activities, thermic effect of food
factors that affect the basal metabolic rate?
raise: young age, tall height, growing, body composition - more lean tissue, fever, stress, environmental temperature adjusting, more thyroxine
lower: fasting/starvation, malnutrition
basal metabolism
sum total of all the involuntary activities that are necessary to sustain life, including circulation, respiration, temperature maintenance, hormone secretion, nerve activity, new tissue synthesis, EXCLUDING digestion and voluntary activities. Largest part of the average person's daily energy expenditure
thermic effect of food
the body's speeded-up metabolism in response to having eaten a meal
basal metabolic rate
rate at which the body uses energy to support its basal metabolism
Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)
the DRI recommendation for energy intake, accounting for age, gender, weight, height, and physical activity
skinfold test
measurement of the thickness of a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat
dual-energy X ray absorptiometry
DEXA - a noninvasive method of determining total body fat, fat distribution, and bone density by passing two low-dose X ray beams through the body. Also used in evaluation osteoporosis
satiation
the perception of fullness that builds throughout a meal, eventually reaching the degree of fullness and satisfaction that halts eating. determines how much food is consumed at one sitting
satiety
the perception of fullness that lingers in the hours after a meal and inhibits eating until the next mealtime. determines the length of time between meals
ghrelin
a hormone released by the stomach that signals the brain's hypothalamus and other regions to stimulate eating: contributes to feeling of hunger
which beats the other in the appetite control system: hunger or satiety?
hunger
leptin
adipokine hormone that suppresses appetite and regulates body fatness (produced in fat cells)
set-point theory
a theory stating that the body's regulatory controls tend to maintain a particular body weight (the set point) over time, opposing efforts to lose weight by dieting
thermogenesis
the generation and release of body heat associated with the breakdown of body fuels
brown adipose tissue (BAT)
type of adipose tissue that releases heat from fuels without accomplishing other work
dopamine
neurotransmitter with many important roles in the brain, including pleasure
ketone bodies
acidic compounds derived from fat and certain amino acids. normally rare in the blood, they help to feed the brain during times when too little carbohydrate is available
what happens when energy balance is negative?
glycogen returns glucose to the blood and fat tissues supply fatty acids for energy
what happens during fasting or a low carb diet?
glycogen runs out, body protein is called upon to make glucose, fats supply ketone bodies to help feed the brain and nerves
night eating syndrome
disturbance in daily eating rhythm associated with obesity, characterized by no breakfast, more than half of the days calories consumed after 7 pm, frequent nighttime awakenings to eat, and a high calorie intake
energy density
measure of the energy provided by a food relative to its weight (calories per gram)
when trying to gain weight, should you exercise?
yes... to build lean tissue
self-efficacy
a person's belief in his or her ability to succeed in an undertaking
weight cycling
repeated rounds of weight loss and subsequent regain, with reduced ability to lose weight with each attempt (yo yo dieting)
behavior modification
alteration of behavior using methods based on the theory that actions can be controlled by manipulating the environmental factors that cue, or trigger, the actions
cognitive skills
as taught in behavior therapy, changes to conscious thoughts with the goal of improving adherence to lifestyle modifications; ex: problem-solving skills or the correction of false negative thoughts
female athlete triad
eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis
cathartic
strong laxative that can injure lower intestinal tract (bulimia)
emetic
drug intended as first aid for poisoning (bulimia - vomit)