Mental Health PDF: Adults

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Terms in this set (37)
absence or impairment of ability to communicate through writing, speech, or signs
inability to perform purposeful movements without sensory or motor impairement
loss of comprehension of visual, auditory, or other sensations
attention, memory, executive functions, and screening of relevant versus irrelevant info
cog-beh to uncover distorted beliefs and faulty thinking patterns

interpersonal psychotherapy to improve interpersonal and psychosocial functioning
cog-beh to enable clients to approach situations that cause anxiety, understand the fear cycle, and challenge distorted cog related to fear

relaxation therapy
expressive writing
The somatoform disorders are a group of psychological disorders in which a patient experiences physical symptoms that are inconsistent with or cannot be fully explained by any underlying general medical or neurologic condition
menu and meal planning, lifestyle design, ind living skills training, communication and assertiveness training, stress mgmt, projective art/crafts, relapse prevention, body image improvement
development and maintenance of collaborative relationships
consistency during tx
validation of feelings
motivation for change
mood stabilization and expression of appropriate emotions
promotion of increased self-concept, self-esteem, insight, and judgement
development of interpersonal relationships
removal of an unfavorable outcome to produce desired outcome (person calls in sick because a report is not finished yet, theraby avoiding difficult questions and reducing anxiety)
intentional relationship model-therapeutic use of self -impact the therapist-client relationship has on improving function Includes: -head over heart, mindful empathy, focus on activities with a focus on the interpersonalactive listening includes-restating -reflecting -clarifyingscaffoldingpractitioner helps the client by doing parts of the task that are too hard, but then has the client do the rest, so that the task may be completedfadinggradual withdrawal of support as the client gains improved skillsadaptation vs modificationadaptation-changing the requirements of the occupation to be more congruent with the client's abilities modification- reduction of the demands of an occupation (ex-use of contrasting colored material to help a client with visual impairments)directive leadership styleparticipants with lower cog skills, provide more directions and structurefacilitative leadership stylegroup demonstrates fair to good insight and motivation allows participants t take responsibility for some of the group activities while maintaining control over goals and decision makingadvisory leadership stylegroup is mature and has high verbal abilities works alongside participants on a coaching capacity, enables group members to perform at their highest capacityCara and MacRea four stages of groups1. initial stage: members learn expectations, get to know one another, concerned with trust and disclosure 2. transition stage: members wonder about being accepted and about whether they will be safe, struggle with conforming vs risk-taking behavior 3. working stage: trust is built, group becomes cohesive, demonstrate ability to share responsibility and communicate 4. final stage: task is completed, participants evaluate experience and deal with feelings of completionparallel groupscomplete tasks side by side with little or no interactionsprojectgroup's emphasis on the task, some interactionegocentric-cooperativeinteraction among participants is expectedcooperativetaking care of each other's needs is part of the group processmature grouppart assume leadership roles and address one another's needsCog behavioral groups include...shaping, chaining, reinforcement, and practice ex. role playing,developmental groupshomogeneous in terms of developmental level so that activities address the needs of all; the just right challengeMOHO groups-change can result as a result of interaction with the environment -participation in occupation and roles -ex: parenting group can help part learn the skills needed to be an effective parenthumanistic modelsemphasize self-actualization and exploration of values, focus on the presentlifestyle performance modelfocuses on configuration of activity patterns that constitute a lifestyle include: reciprocal interpersonal relatedness (connection to others), intrinsic gratification societal contribution, and self care/maintenanceclubhouse model-severe mental illness -activities focus on members strengths and abilities rather than illness -no therapists or psychiatrists -voluntary -members vote to determine programming *ex: holland drop-inNeeds assessement1. gather background data 2. collaborate with participants 3. administer written survey 4. face to face interviews 5. telephone interviews 6. interview key informants 7. focus groupseven steps of group leadership1. intro-purpose and clear expectations 2. activity 3. sharing-share what they produced or experienced 4. processing- talk about feelings about experiences, discuss any non verbal aspects of group 5. generalizing- leader summarizes cog learning and what was shared by participants, making note of any common threads 6. application-connection btw what occurred and how they can apply it to real life 6-summary- reiterates most important parts during group__________________ is regarded as an initial step in developing a group protocol. It requires identification of a problem and interaction with potential group members to determine what will promote change.Motivation to changeWith the Allen Diagnostic Module, an OTR® measures a client at an Allen Cognitive Level (ACL) of 4.0. The OTR is working with the client in an adult day treatment center. When the OTR is designing intervention activities, what type of project is appropriate for this client? A. Any project with mostly familiar steps; no more than two steps of the task should require new learning. B. A project that is unstructured; the client should be given opportunities to find and revise errors. C. A project that is set up with a model final product; simple instructions should be provided, along with supervision. D. A project that encourages relatively independent planning and organizing to complete; none of the steps should require new learning.The right answer is C A person with an ACL of 4.0 can perform only simple tasks and will have difficulty with problem solving. A model with clear instructions should be provided along with supervision for cues and guidance when needed. A: This approach would be more appropriate for a client with an ACL in the low 5s, because a client with an ACL of 4.0 will have difficulty with problem solving. B: This approach would be more appropriate for a client with an ACL in the mid-5s, because it is unstructured and forces the client to search for and revise errors. D: This approach would be appropriate for a client with an ACL in the high 5s, because a client at this level should be able to independently plan activities.A client diagnosed with dissociative personality disorder is admitted to an inpatient psychiatric hospital as a result of suicidal behavior and impulses, severe anxiety, and periods of violence brought on by the emergence of new personalities. How is the OTR® in this milieu therapy setting likely to intervene? A. Provide a safe, nonthreatening, success-oriented environment to increase the client's sense of control. B. Offer group therapy opportunities for verbalizing experiences and describing other personalities. C. Offer group training in development of coping skills. D. Offer participation in psychodrama groups to encourage catharsis.The right answer is A Clients in the acute phases of multiple personality disorder require opportunities for safe and supportive exploration of new personalities. Explanations of Incorrect Answers B, C, D: These options describe cathartic, verbal, and coping groups, respectively, which are not recommended for clients with multiple personality disorder. Clients with multiple personality disorder will tend to show more severe symptoms when provided with more opportunities to self-express, such as in nondirective cathartic and verbal groups.A client has two children, a 3½-year-old and a 2-year-old. Because of postpartum depression, she has been unable to return to work since the birth of the younger child. What home- and community-based occupational therapy services would BEST help the client improve her worker role? A. Job simulation and work retraining in the home B. Facilitation of employer-client meetings to negotiate bringing the children to work C. Weekly goal setting, time management activities, and use of a positive-events diary to build self-confidence D. Facilitation of employer-client meetings to negotiate work-at-home optionsThe right answer is C Nonpharmacological approaches to treating depression, including postpartum depression, focus on assistance with gradual lifestyle reexamination and positive support to build self-confidence, assist with task demands through time management, and problem solving.An OTR® is working with a client who has major depression and works for a service-based business that opens at 9:00 a.m. and closes at 5:00 p.m. The client finds work meaningful but is unable to keep up with a full-time schedule because of the depression. The OTR would like to advocate for workplace accommodations. According to the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), what is a reasonable accommodation for this client? A. The client should be allowed to work 3 hours per day. B. The client should be given a flexible start time. C. The client could job share with a coworker. D. The client can break for 3 hours in the middle of the day.The right answer is C To satisfy the client's needs while respecting the business's normal operations, this option is best for the client, according to ADA guidelines. The ADA suggests that the employer should not have to provide accommodations that would disrupt the flow of normal operations. Explanations of Incorrect Answers A: This accommodation is not reasonable because it would not meet the employer's needs for 8 hours of labor per day. B: This accommodation is not reasonable because the work hours are not conducive to this particular business, which is service based and must be open for at a predictable time for its customers. D: This accommodation is not reasonable because it disrupts the normal working hours necessary for the type of business for which the client works.