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Gen. Path Palmer Quiz 1
Terms in this set (126)
What is the study of disease?
What are examples of pathology?
conditions, sickness, illness, disorders, syndromes
What is the origin of disease, "why"?
What are 3 examples of etiology?
2. environmental exposures
3. risk factors
What are steps in development, "how"?
What are the 4 main adaptations to cellular stress?
What does irreversible injury result in?
death through necrosis or apoptosis
What is known as an increase in size of cells and incapable of division?
What occurs during rhinophyma?
sebaceous gland hypertrophy
What is Rhinophyma?
form of roasacea and is idiopathic
What is the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements?
What is a structural or functional change in the body that is harmful to the organism; a deviation from optimal homeostasis?
What is an objective and observable indication that a disease is present?
What is an example of a sign?
What is subjective evidence of disease or physical disturbance?
What is an example of a symptom?
What is the term used in pathology to represent additional stressors that are placed on a cell?
What are 2 examples of cellular stress?
1. high blood pressure places stress on the heart muscles, requiring myocytes to contract harder
2. vitamin C deficiency resulting in scurvy
What are the 2 factors that influence a cell's ability to adapt?
1. cell type
2. nature of the cellular stress
What will occur if a cell is no longer able to adapt to a cellular stressor?
What specific disease has a larger genetic role?
What specific disease has a larger environmental role?
What term is often used to label a causative agent that plays an etiological role in the development of a disease?
What is a neurodegenerative disease that causes severe dementia during middle adulthood?
What is a cancer of the pulmonary pleura that is strongly associated with a history of exposure to asbestos?
What are physiological adaptations?
responses that would occur with normal physiological changes
What are 2 examples of physiological adaptations?
1. enlargement of uterus and breasts during pregnancy
2. skeletal muscle tissue hypertrophy following weight training
What are responses to excessive cellular stress and indicate a loss of optimal structure and function?
What do pathologic adaptations allow?
cells to avoid or delay injury
What are 2 examples of pathologic adaptations?
1. cardiac ventricular hypertrophy
2. heavy alcohol consumption serves as a source of stress for hepatocytes and may lead to hepatitis and cirrhosis.
What are reversible changes in cell populations?
How is hypertrophy achieved?
due to an increase in the synthesis of intracellular proteins and organelles
What is an example of pathologic hypertrophy?
ventricular hypertrophy in patients with heart failure
What is an example of hypertrophy being commonly associated with processes that also cause cellular proliferation via hyperplasia?
estrogen acts as a growth factor on the pregnant uterus
What is an increased number of cells, due to cellular division?
What is an examination of tissue removed from a living body to discover the presence, cause, or extent of a disease?
What is an example of tissue hyperplasia?
patients with the pathology known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
What does Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) result in?
frequent urination since it is more difficult to empty the bladder
What is an example of how hyperplasia may be stimulated by certain viral infections?
human papillomavirus (HPV) infects cells, introduces growth, promoting genes, and stimulates cellular hyperplasia
What does the resulting site of HPV hyperplasia take on?
an irregular surface known as a wart
What is the shrinkage of cell size, due to a loss of the cell's structural proteins?
What 2 things are involved with atrophy?
1. reduced protein synthesis
2. increased rate of protein breakdown (catabolism)
What process is atrophy commonly associated with?
True or False: An atrophic cell remains viable and is not dead?
What are the 6 causes of atrophy?
5. endocrine disruption
What is a form of cellular adaptation where one cell type is replaced by another cell type?
True or false: Metaplasia is known to be an irreversible cellular adaptation?
False: removal of a cellular stressor may result in reversal of cellular metaplasia
What are 2 examples of metaplasia?
1. cells lining the upper respiratory tract of chronic smokers
2. lower esophagus of patients with GERD
In a patient with GERD, what cells are replaced and by what?
normal esophageal cells (stratified epithelia) are replaced by columnar cells
What does regular upper respiratory tract irritation cause?
What do metaplastic changes predispose the involved cells to?
malignant transformation (cancer)
What is an insufficient blood supply to a tissue?
What are the 4 pathologies that characteristically develop following insufficient arterial blood supply?
1. myocardial infarction (heart attack)
2. cerebral infarction (stroke)
3. ischemia bowel disease
What do reductions in blood supply most commonly develop from?
atherosclerotic plaque formation, blood clots, reduced cardiac output (heart failure), or compression of major arteries
What are times when hypoxia may develop in the absence of ischemia?
pneumonia, carbon monoxide poisoning, or a disease that inhibits the movement of the thorax
What are examples of a pathology that inhibit the activity of the diaphragm?
botulism, Gullain-Barre syndrome (GBS), or anything that injures the phrenic nerve
What is a bluish discoloration of the skin?
What is a substance that may kill, injure, or impair a living organism?
What are 3 examples in which innocuous substances may have a harmful effect?
1. excessive glucose in individuals with diabetes
2. excessive water consumption
3. premature infants receiving pure oxygen may have injury to retinas
What is an over-activation of the normal immune mechanisms may injure cells via autoimmunity or allergies?
What are immunological reactions commonly called?
What 4 things cause cell and tissue injury?
1. mechanical trauma
2. thermal trauma
3. electrical injury
4. injury from high-energy radiation
What is the reduced capacity for cells to react to stress and maintain homeostasis known as?
What 2 things do reversibly injured cells commonly demonstrate?
2. accumulation of fat
Why does cellular swelling develop?
because injured cells may not have enough ATP to power ATP dependent pumps
What does reduced pump activity result in?
an accumulation of ions within the cell, which produces a loss of fluid homeostasis and an accumulation of water within the cell
What is the primary organ that manifests with fatty change following injury?
What are the 3 features of cellular death?
1. significant mitochondrial damage or dysfunction
2. a damaged or dysfunctional plasma membrane
3. genetic or nuclear damage
What does the pathway a dead cell takes depend on?
nature of the injury as well as the specific type of cell that was injured
What is the form of cellular death involving destruction of cellular membranes which serve to initiate a prominent inflammatory reaction?
What does the inflammatory reaction of necrosis bring?
phagocytes to eliminate dead cellular debris and initiate the healing process
Necrosis is the primary pathway for cellular death following?
severe ischemia, trauma, infections, toxic exposure, or other causes of severe tissue injury
True or False: Necrosis is both a pathological and physiological process?
False: always an unregulated pathological process
What is a form of regulated cell death that allows for controlled cellular breakdown?
What form of cell death is involved with physiologic and pathologic processes?
Apoptosis maintains what?
the integrity of the outer plasma membrane by forming apoptotic bodies
Apoptosis serves to eliminate unwanted cells during what 4 things?
1. severe DNA damage
2. severe protein damage
3. a loss of cellular survival signals
4. cells that have been infected by viruses
What are observed when a cell undergoes necrosis?
Why do destructive changes originate with necrosis?
leakage of cellular enzymes of the white blood cells that are attracted to the site of necrosis
What cytoplasmic change is necrotic cells manifest with an increased pink or red appearance?
What do myelin figures resemble?
myelin sheath surrounding nerves
What nuclear change is the nuclear shrinkage and increased basophilia, due to nuclear DNA condensing?
What nuclear change is fragment or fall apart?
What nuclear change is the nucleus continues to degrade and the basophilia fades?
During karyolysis, after 1 or 2 days, what completely disappears?
Sites of coagulative necrosis maintain a ____ ______ for several days after the tissue dies?
What are examples of tissues that manifest with coagulative necrosis?
sites of a myocardial infarction, ischemia to a kidney, adrenal glands
What type of necrosis will manifest with CNS ischemia (stroke)?
What is it called when extremities experience coagulative necrosis?
What are examples of conditions that produce gangrene?
peripheral vascular disease, frostbite, major trauma that obstructs blood supply
What is uncomplicated gangrene called?
What is infected gangrenous tissue that has liquified?
What gangrene occurs when bacteria, such as clostridium perfringens, infects gangrenous tissue?
What is liquefactive necrosis associated with?
bacterial infections, but deep fungal infections may also produce this pattern of tissue death
What is the process of liquefactive necrosis?
-WBC's release enzymes that quickly breakdown necrotic tissue into isolated liquid/viscous mass
-mass will eventually be completely digested, assuming patient survives to allow time for this process to occur
What is a cheese-like pattern of necrosis known as?
What is a common way of describing caseous necrosis microscopically?
What are a pattern of chronic inflammation that consist of collections of macrophages?
What are areas of fat destruction that result in saponification known as?
What are the 4 things that cause fat necrosis?
1. ruptured pancreas where the pancreatic enzymes cause tissue necrosis
2. acute pancreatitis from chronic alcoholism
3. direct trauma to the upper abdominal cavity
4. trauma to breast tissue
What is a pattern of tissue necrosis that requires a microscope to be visualized?
Where does fibrinoid necrosis typically occur?
in the vessel walls of patients who have an autoimmune condition causing vasculitis
How does fibrinoid necrosis manifest?
as an eosinophilic appearance
What is a rarer cause of fibrinoid necrosis?
severely elevated blood pressure
What are the 2 primary pathways that a cell may initiate apoptosis?
1. mitochondrial pathway
2. death receptor pathway
Which pathway is an intrinsic apoptosis pathway that occurs within the cell?
What has an increase to the mitochondrial membrane's permeability during the mitochondrial pathway?
cytochrome C, which then leaks into the cell's cytosol
What pathway have stimuli: genetic damage, accumulation of misfolded proteins, or reduced growth factors?
Which caspase is activated during the mitochondrial pathway?
Which pathway is an extrinsic pathway that is initiated on the outside surface of the cell?
death receptor pathway
What caspase does the death receptor pathway activate?
What prevents membranes from not being significantly disrupted?
What is most commonly described as a survival mechanism for a cell to avoid death at a time when the cell is experiencing nutrient deprivation?
What is the process of autophagy?
1. sequestering own organelles within an autophagic vacuole
2. cell's lysosomes release enzymes that breakdown the autophagic vacuoles to use them as a source of nutrients
3. at a point the cell will stop eating itself and will initiate apoptosis
What do hypoxia and ischemia inhibit?
a cell's ability to perform ATP production, via oxidative phosphorylation within the mitochondria
Cells that are deprived of ATP will trigger?
necrosis since cellular membranes are destroyed
Which type of cells are more resistant to injury from hypoxia or ischemia?
cells that can switch over to glycolysis
Which type of cells are unable to perform glycolysis and thus make them highly susceptible to hypoxia and ischemia?
cardiac myocytes or CNS neurons
True or False: Cells that do have the ability to perform glycolysis may injure the cell
True, cells will increase their production of lactic acid
What is it called when cells have been injured from ischemia but may be able to avoid death if blood is restore?
What is the consequence of the reperfusion of blood?
large amounts of activated white blood cells that release oxygen species when introduced to an area of ischemia
What are molecules that have an unpaired electron in their outer orbital shell called?
What are free radicals that are found within the human body?
reactive oxygen species (ROS)
An increase in ROS causes oxidative stress which injures?
proteins, lipids that make up cellular membranes, or DNA
What are the common reactive oxygen species found within humans?
-superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxide, isolated oxygen molecules
What are the circumstances that cause oxidative stress?
-age related, chemicals/toxins, ionizing radiation, prolonged inflammatory reactions, or ischemia-reperfusion injuries
This set is often in folders with...
Gen. Path Palmer Quiz 2
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