Terms in this set (111)
Part of the social sciences that studies society and social interactions
A collection of academic disciplines that studies human behavior
What are the shortcomings of Psychology?
-Cannot be applicable to everyone
-Assumes that there is such a thing as normal behavior when no one really has properly (no bias) defined what normal behavior looks like.
Why were political systems created?
Created to establish order among human societies.
Group of day to day operations made by human beings and human interaction within a distinguished geographical setting.
Side note: the existence of societies marks the behavioral evolution of mankind.
"Distinguished geographical setting"
You do not necessarily need a "distinguished geographical setting" to have a society. For example internet societies and the influence of the "western society" found in different countries.
Made up of people, norms/laws, and languages
What does not fall under the social sciences
Philosophy, Journalism, Biology, Humanities
Not applicable to everyone because it is personal and it does not use the scientific method. The discipline of Hummanities also does not study human behavior scientifically
Sociologists use the scientific method to study human behavior. The scientific method is comprised of: Systematic Observation, Hypothesis, Testing the Hypothesis, Analyzing the data gathered, and Formulating the Conclusion.
A distinct observation that leads you to a question
educated guess that does not need to be in the form of a question (FIND BIO DEF)
You test your hypothesis using a research methodology. You can test your hypothesis using a quantitative or qualitative method
conduct surveys, demography (focuses on connecting people to land), secondary data. This method relies on numbers; amount of responses, for instance
Focuses on precise details rather than the amount of responses. For example, interviews, questionnaires, case studies
gender, age, race, religion/denomination, etc.
Father of sociology that discovered four different types of suicide
caused by the lack of regulation
- Hitler killed himself because his world order came apart
caused by over regulation
- military suicide
caused by the under commitment to a group or alienation from a group
-Hunter S. Thompson-killed himself because he was getting older
over commitment to a group/society
What is the difference between a theory and a theoretical framework?
A theoretical framework is a collection of general thoughts of what goes on in society, while a theory explains something specific that goes on in society.
composed of general propositions
belongs in a theoretical framework
3 Main theoretical frameworks
1. Functionalist theory
Worked on a macro scale
society is viewed as a living organism and if the essential parts of this organism stop working then society as whole stops working.
When all parts of the living organism (society) are functioning. Industrial societies for instance.
state of lack of regulation that eventually leads society to fall apart.
Two types of functionalism
- Classic functionalism
a. Classic functionalism
Anything that exists in society has a function
for example: In string theory deviance serves a function
When something does not work in society society will naturally get rid of it.
for example: In string theory deviance is caused by a part of society that is "sick"
2. Conflict theory
Worked on the Macroscale
Focuses on the conflict between the bourgeoisie and the proletariate. There is a gross unequal distribution of resources that causes so much conflict in society. This leads to strife among the proleteriate (example of micro scale)
3. Symbolic interactionism
Worked on the micro-scale
focuses on small groups and their interactions with one another. Our different interpretations are contributed to the interactions we have with people.
For example: You and your nickname are two different people because you act differently with the people who don't call you by your nickname and the people who do.
We are all giving a performance that is shaped by our setting. Depending on where we are we act a certain way. Depending on our future and past interactions we shape our performances.
Individuals you have long lasting relationships with.
Individuals you do not have a long lasting relationship with.
Review the difference between a theory and a framework
A theory is housed within a framework.
A theoretical framework leads to a theory.
A problem that affect society ( individuals that make up the society)
A problem that affects the individual.
Making the connection between troubles and issues, according to C. Wright Mills.
the individual's problems
Why did Mills believe that people do not have the sociological imagination?
Society is constantly changing and we are constantly trying to catch up. Meanwhile, we are trying to catch up with new concepts and ideas we are stuck in the past about how we deal with societies problems. We place societies problems in the backseat until we forget about them and in doing this we fail to create new methods to address the issues.
When one adapts to the ways of earlier times. Ways: the methods used to deal with issues.
example: technology affects your day to day interactions
Established the American Dream since they believed that your hard work determined your class/riches. This is also known as the Protestant work ethic.
What is the issue with Protestant work ethic?
Leads to the assumption that poor people are not hard workers when in reality they are the ones that work the hardest in some cases.
The beliefs, the way of life, art, and customs shared by a particular people in a society.
cultural construct that speaks to who you are. It is a biological characteristic.
What is the difference between race and culture?
We can share the same culture but not be a part of the same race.
ex. We are all a part of the Anglo-Saxon Culture (American dream), but not the part of the same race.
separate people into different categories based on different characteristics like their biology or religion.
can be a part of culture, speaks to a shared cultural heritage which is usually tied to a country or geographical setting.
Two types of culture
Material culture and Non-material culture
any aspect of culture that is physically created by its members.
ex. clothing and technology
Ideas/ beliefs created by a group of people
ex. language, religion, superstitions, rituals, education
both material and non material
ex. music, food, customs, dressing, beliefs
any object or gesture that is readily recognized to carry a particular meaning in a given culture.
ex. cross and mcdonalds
a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
act of passing down culture from one generation to another
two or more cultures come into contact with one another
ex. marriage, adoption, conquest, immigration
speaks to language, social values, social norms, rituals, and beliefs that are established as the norm and that dominate society.
ex. dominant culture is the US is the Anglo-saxon culture
relationship between creativity and the dominant culture which in this case is capitalism
cultures that fall under the dominant culture
ex. open relationships, foodies, music, cosplay
An economic system created by the industrial revolution. It inhibits the essence of the human being because it is all about mass production
cultural characteristics of the bourgeoisie in a society
ex. luxury cars, etiquette, art, food
culture that is well known in a society
ex. fashion, social media, movies, sports
is actively going against the dominant culture and always as the objective of reaching cultural change
ex. punk rock actively countered the British Crown in the UK and the conservatism found in the dominant culture.
shift or change in morals, beliefs, and values of a society. When is shift happens a cultural lag occurs.
when the cultural ideas that regulate society do not keep up with or fails to keep up with social change
ex. poor internet regulation
belief that one's own culture is the best
revolve around inferiority or superiority
being taught how to behave and thrive in a certain culture/ society.
ex. crying at a funeral
Without socialization our personalities would not develop
The process of socialization determines your personality. You socialize with your family and friends.
There are 4 primary agents of socialization
family, religion, school/education, media
an aspect of the dominant culture where we are introduced to the norms and values of the dominant culture.
School: social knowledge like there being another authoritative figure at school (teacher) and there being a hierarchy (counselor, teacher, janitor), also "street smarts"
Education: formal learning, for instance, gender norms, time management, learn to line up (obedience).
can be as influential or more influential than family.
We are constantly being advertised.
social position person or group holds in society
dictates how other people interact with you-since there is an expected behavior that you carry out this is also known as your role
expected behavior associated with a given status
example of roles a person can have: teach, provide, nurture
out of a status set, you are defined by a particular status, this status is more impactful
this status dictates how people interact with you the most
Example: parents, criminals,
holding of multiple roles at a given moment
set of statuses that a person can hold at the same time
ex. teacher, parent, employee
within these status sets there are role sets
when performing two or more roles associated with multiple statuses results in a conflict.
boss has to fire a close friend
involved with one status that inhibits you from performing another role associated with a status
ex. the medicine you take keeps you from doing your job
when you no longer perform a role, this is a very challenging process
-note: you cannot exit a status
group comprised of two or more people who associate and identify with one another
social group that is made up of two people
ex. couple, president and vice president, pilot and co-pilot
there is no mediator, unstable because the roles that can be played are limited (not much diversity in the statuses that can be held)
a social group consisting of three or more people
in a board of directors: leader, mediator, organizer, confidant
more stable because there are more people to hold different roles and statuses
social group where it is valued for its own sake
relationships in this group endure over time
people in this group are involved in many aspects of each others lives
ex. family, christian communities, gangs
a group that we are involved in only as far as it allows us to accomplish certain goals
ex. we go to school to develop our careers to ultimately make money and we go to work to earn our pay
a collection of intertwined relationships that connect people with specific goals.
these relationships have the weakest social ties since these relationships are over when there is no interest
linkedin: you connect to other people so that you can be hired/they connect with you so that they can hire you.
secondary group with strict and specific format on hand to accomplish its goals
ex. education system, government, prisons
a. Utilitarian organizations
pays for group membership and exit from the group can be both voluntary and involuntary
b. Normative organization
voluntary organizations where members morally agree with the goals of the group. Group membership can be both voluntary and involuntary (like you went to mass as a kid with your parents whether you liked it or not).
ex. charity, church
c. coercive organizations
membership can be both voluntary and involuntary , whereas role exit is involuntary
an organization that is not considered legitimate by the dominant culture
ex. Christianity started off as a cult since it was challenging the Roman empire
1. instrumental leadership
focuses on the task at hand rather than the group members
2. expressive leadership
focus on group members rather than the task at hand
3 leadership styles
authoritarian, democratic, laissez-faire
focus on executing its tasks by demanding complete obedience from its group members. The decision making is left to the group leaders
- group leadership that is used is instrumental
includes the group members in the decision-making
group leadership that is used can be expressive or instrumental
means "hands off" and let the people make their own decisions
-group leadership that is used is expressive
phenomenon where the group members are not able to see points of view outside the goals of the group this is also known as irrational behavior
Four main phases of the life's course
early adulthood (18)-mid adulthood( 45-67)
old age (67-death)
becoming resocialized into another phase of life
ceremony that accompanies the old expectation. You must leave behind your old identity while entering a new institution.
social groups comprised of people who share a level of social standing
processes by which people act and learn to react in relation to others
the status you were "scribed" to or the status you were born with
the status a person chooses, such as a level of education or income
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