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Airports and Flight Protocol
Terms in this set (26)
consists of hot-mix asphalt installed on a base course and subbase, if required. This type resists cracking
Full-Depth Asphalt Pavement
contains asphaltic cement as its main material
may use rubberized Portland cement as a subbase
all pavement styles consist of _____
a base course (stabilized), a subbase, and a subgrade, and important that loose, gritty material does not exist between layers
runway lengths are dependent on...
type of aircraft expected, expected MTOW, elevation of the airfield, and max local air temperature
Visual Runway Markings
visible so pilots can view them as the aircraft approaches the runway. These runways are commonly small airports
Precision Instrument Runway
found in larger airports, displays all the same markings of a nonprecision instrument runway as well as a touchdown zone and side stripes. Also contains an instrument landing system, or precision approach radar. An ILS approach receives radio responses that provide both vertical and horizontal guidance. Additionally, a runway number identifies the approach direction as read from a magnetic azimuth and left, center, and right designations identify parallel runways
Nonprecision Instrument Runway
generally found in small to medium size airports and displays a centerline, a threshold mark, and designators, as well as a visual cue called an aiming point--a wide strip located on both sides of the runway and approximately 1,000 feet from the landing threshold. This signifies the runway contains navigation facilities for an instrument approach with only horizontal guidance
Runway End Identification Lights (REILs)
synchronized illuminated lights placed on each side of the runway threshold to help a pilot identify the approach end of a runway. The lights at the end of the runway are red, and outward from the runway end they are green, to indicate the threshold
Runway Edge Lights
identify the edges of the runway. These are of variable intensity and white in color, although instrument runways have yellow edge lighting along the last 2,000 feet, or half the length of the runway, whichever is less
Approach Light System (ALS)
assists a pilot in transitioning from instrument flight to visual flight for landing. Some airports have the flashing lights blink sequentially to guide a pilot to the end of the runway under instrument landings
Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI)
will assist with descents during visual landings. Each indicator has a white light on the upper portion and a red light on the lower portion to identify to the pilot his or her position along the glide path to the runway
the area controlled and maintained by the FAA-regulated air traffic control (ATC) service. This service controls the movement of all aviation assets within its designated area
the different types of marked runways
precision instrument, non-precisions instrument, and visual
Airspace is divided into 6 classes by the FAA
airspace from 18,000 feet MSL to pressure altitude of 60,000 ft, 12 nautical miles off the coast of US, and international airspace beyond 12 NM that is within the navigational signal of ATC radar. All aircraft must operate under instrument flight rules (IFR) at this level
Airspace from ground level to 10,000 ft MSL surrounding the busiest airports capable of IFR operations and commercial passenger traffic. ATC clearance is required to enter and leave this airspace. Aircraft and pilots must be certified to operate in this airspace. Flight visibility is 3 statute miles.
airspace from ground level to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation surrounding airports with an operational control tower and services by radar approach control, IFR operations, and commercial passenger traffic. Airspace extends from 5 NM radius (surface to 4,000 feet above airport elevation) to 10 NM radius from 1,200 to 4,000 feet. No pilot certification is required to operate in this airspace; however, clearance is required to enter and exit this airspace. A two-way radio and an operable radar beacon transponder with automatic altitude reporting equipment are required.
airspace from ground level to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation surrounding airports with an operational control tower. Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) identify any specific requirements for pilots to operate in this controlled airspace. A two-way radio is required to operate in this airspace.
any controlled airspace not included in class A through D. Special VFR operations are permitted with prior clearance obtained by the controlling facility. Class E airspace is distinguished on sectional charts in blue or magenta, and white on low altitude en route charts. No specific pilot or equipment requirement exists.
uncontrolled airspace with visibility requirements of 1 mile during the day and 3 miles at night. This airspace is valid for altitudes 1,200 feet AGL to 10,000 feet MSL. Above 10,000 feet, 5 miles of visibility is required day or night. Class G airspace is identified on sectional maps by a faded, thick blue line
Classes A and B
the ATC controller must verbally grant clearance. Acknowledgement of the aircraft call sign is not considered an established communication
Classes C and D
if the ATC controller acknowledges with the aircraft cal sign, communication is considered established. This is true even if the ATC controller responds with the aircraft call sign and instructs the pilot to "standby"
all aircraft have an inherent duty to:
steer clear of other aircraft and hot-air balloons
steering clear means
an aircraft may not pass over, under, or ahead of another aircraft unless it is well clear
the following 6 rules establish the right-of-way over all other air traffic
1. an aircraft in distress always has the right-of-way over all other air traffic
2. when 2 aircraft of the same category approach each other (except head-on) at generally the same altitude, the aircraft on the right has the right-of-way
3. when approaching aircraft are of different categories, refer to the following, presented in order of right-of-way:
a. hot-air balloons
d. powered parachutes
e. powered hang gliders and
(an exception to this is an aircraft towing or refueling another aircraft, which has the right-of-way over all other engine-driven aircraft)
4. when 2 aircraft approach head-on, the pilot of each aircraft should change course to the right.
5. an overtaking aircraft has the right-of-way, and the pilot of the aircraft being overtaken must shift course to the right to stay clear
6. when landing, an aircraft on final appraoch or beginning to land has the right-of-way, as long as it does not force an already landed aircraft off the runway. When 2 aircraft are landing at the same time, the aircraft at a lower altitude has the right-of-way but cannot cut in front of the other to become the lower level aircraft
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Instrument Pilot Oral Exam Guide Flash Cards
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
UPT Systems 1 (COMPLETE)
Airplane Performance (A4)
IFT (DA20-C1 Ops)