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Psychology 10 Midterm 1

STUDY
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The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in
children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed.
Effectively designing physical environments—such as the layout of a kitchen—in a way that maximizes safe and efficient meal preparation is of special interest to___psychologists.
human factors
Morphine and heroin are
opiates
Dr. Lipka focuses on ways to improve employee job satisfaction and productivity. Dr. Lipka is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
industrial-organizational
Shortly after hearing a list of items, people tend to recall the last items in the list especially quickly and accurately. This best illustrates
a recency effect
Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that you can do so best illustrates ________ memory.
implicit
The phi phenomenon refers to
the perception of movement created by the successive blinking on and off of adjacent lights.
Storage is to encoding as ________ is to ________.
retention; acquisition
Which part of the brain plays a key role in forming and storing the implicit memories created by classical conditioning?
cerebellum
Who suggested that the mind at birth is a blank sheet upon which experience writes
John Locke
Telepathy refers to the
extrasensory transmission of thoughts from one mind to another
Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group
The experimental treatment is absent
People deprived of visual experience early in life will later have difficulty perceiving individual human faces as having
a whole form.
To understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist carefully investigates the client's current life situation and his physical, social-cultural, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist used?
the case study
When Tony is in a bad mood, he interprets his parents' comments as criticisms. When he's in a good mood, he interprets the same types of parental comments as helpful suggestions. This best illustrates that our emotional states influence the process of
encoding
Toddlers taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. This best illustrates
generalization
The unreliability of introspection contributed to the waning popularity of
structuralism
Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone
extinction
Which of the following techniques used by professional therapists is(are) likely to promote false memories in patients?
hypnosis
guided imagery
dream analysis
D) all of these techniques
Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as
the spacing effect
Professor Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a ________ perspective on depression.
neuroscience
Judy is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend's name. Judy's poor memory most likely results from a failure in
retrieval
While a man provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The student's failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption illustrates
change blindness
Arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriend's telephone number that he finds it difficult to recall his new girlfriend's number. Arnold's difficulty best illustrates
proactive interference
Because the two teams wore different-colored uniforms, Cheri perceived the 10 basketball players as two distinct groups. This best illustrates the principle of
similarity
Neurosurgeons have severed the corpus callosum in human patients in order to reduce
epileptic seizures
Ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget newly learned information is initially
rapid and subsequently slows down
Retinal disparity refers to the
somewhat different images our two eyes receive of the same object.
Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with
novel tastes
The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is known as
behaviorism
Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter
dopamine
Median is to range as central tendency is to ________.
variation
Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two variables
vary together
The perceived size of an object is most strongly influenced by that object's perceived
distance
The function of dendrites is to
receive incoming signals from other neurons
a statement describing how a researcher measures a research variable is known as a(n)
operational definition
The motor cortex is located in the ________ lobes
frontal
Reuptake refers to the
reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron.
The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of
working memory
By simply thinking about a move, which activates their brain cells, people may be able to move a robotic arm. This best illustrates
neural prosthetics
The influence of schemas on our interpretations of ambiguous sensations best illustrates
top-down processing
"The Magical Number Seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of ________ memory.
short-term
Our inability to consciously process all the sensory information available to us at any single point in time best illustrates the necessity of
selective attention
Conditioning is the process of
learning associations
Which of the following questions about the word depressed would best prepare you to correctly remember tomorrow that you had seen the word on today's test? (meaning, rhyming, how its written, or number of letters)
How well does the word describe you? (meaning)
The fact that a white object under dim illumination appears lighter than a gray object under bright illumination is called
lightness constancy
After learning that kicking would move a crib mobile, infants showed that they recalled this learning best if they were tested in the same crib. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on recall.
retrieval cues
Police interrogators have been trained to ask less suggestive and more effective questions to avoid
the misinformation effect
Ms. Shields, a recent stroke victim, cannot consciously perceive the large book on the coffee table in front of her. Yet, when urged to identify the book, she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book cover. Her response best illustrates
blindsight
The perceptual tendency to fill in gaps in order to perceive disconnected parts as a whole object is called
closure