51 terms

Outdoor Emergency Care (5th Edition): Chapter 10

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shock
Failure of circulatory system to maintain adequate blood flow to tissue
Another term for shock
Hypoperfusion (blood is not perfusing through the body enough)
Journey of oxygenated blood
Heart pumps oxygenated blood through material vessels to capillaries, where O2/CO2 are exchanged at cellular level (O2 out, CO2 in)
Journey of deoxygenated blood
Travels through venous blood vessels to heart, which then goes to lungs. In lungs, CO2 leaves the blood and O2 enters the body (O2 in, CO2 out)
Cardiac Output
Output of blood by the heart in one minute
Stroke volume
Volume of blood pumped out of left ventricle
Heart rate
Number of heartbeats per minute
Formula for cardiac output
Stroke volume times Heart rate
Resistance blood vessels
-the longer a blood vessel is, the MORE resistance it offers
-the larger the cross-sectional area of a blood vessel, the LESS resistance it offers
-arteries can expand and contract as needed to change vascular resistance
-arterioles can contract to INCREASE resistance and decrease blood flow
-opening capillary beds will DECREASE vascular resistance and increase cardiac output
Vasoconstriction
Reduces blood flow and heat transfer by decreasing the diameter of superficial blood vessels.
Capillary beds
Connections between arterial and venous circulation where oxygen and nutrients are provided to cells (and where waste is removed)
Red blood cells
Transport oxygen along the blood stream
Erythrocytes
another name for red blood cells
Hemoglobin
An iron-containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds oxygen.
What does hemoglobin do
Releases oxygen where there is not enough, and tightens/compresses it where there is a lot
Oxygen saturation
How much hemoglobin is bound to oxygen
Hematocrit
Percentage of red blood cells in the blood
Average Hematocrit % for men
42-56%
Average Hematocrit % for women
38-46%
White blood cells
Type of cell that fights off infections
Platelets
Helps clot blood
Plasma
Liquid portion of blood, carries water, electrocytes, and suspended materials (proteins, nutrients, and wastes)
Compensated shock
The early stage of shock, in which the body can still compensate for blood loss.
Decompensated shock
when the body can no longer compensate for low blood volume or lack of perfusion. Late signs such as decreasing blood pressure become evident
Irreversible shock
When the body has lost the battle to maintain perfusion to vital organs. Even if adequate vital signs return, the patient may die days later due to organ failure.
Tachycardia
Heart rate >100 bpm
Tachypnea
Heart rate <20 bpm
Hypovolemic Shock
A condition in which low blood volume, due to massive internal or external bleeding or extensive loss of body water, results in inadequate perfusion.
Possible symptoms of hypovolemic shock
Tachycardia, burns, dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, Lasix
Occult
Hidden or unseen forms of blood loss
Cardiogenic Shock
A state in which not enough oxygen is delivered to the tissues of the body, caused by low output of blood from the heart.
Possible causes of cardiogenic shock
Complication of a large acute myocardial infarction, valve problems, heart attack, slow/fast heart rate, medication, trauma to the heart
Distributive Shock
A condition that occurs when there is widespread dilation of the small arterioles, small venules, or both.
Septic Shock
Distributive Shock; a serious condition that occurs when an overwhelming bacterial infection affects the body
Anaphylactic Shock
Distributive Shock; A severe reaction that occurs when an allergen is introduced to the bloodstream of an allergic individual. Characterized by bronchoconstriction, labored breathing, widespread vasodilation, circulatory shock, and sometimes sudden death.
Neurogenic Shock
Distributive Shock; Circulatory failure caused by paralysis of the nerves that control the size of the blood vessels, leading to widespread dilation; seen in patients with spinal cord injuries.
Obstructive Shock
Shock that occurs when there is a block to blood flow in the heart or great vessels, causing an insufficient blood supply to the body's tissues.
Tension Pneumothorax
a pneumothorax with rapid accumulation of air in the pleural space causing severely high intrapleural pressures with resultant tension on the heart and great vessels.
Pericardial Tamponade
diagnosis due to fluid in the pericardium that exerts pressure on the heart and hampers its ability to contract normally
Pulmonary Embolism
A blood clot that breaks off from a large vein and travels to the blood vessels of the lung, causing obstruction of blood flow.
Pulmonary veins
Pump oxygenated blood from lungs to heart
Pulmonary arteries
Pump deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs
Normal blood pressure for adults
120/80
Hypotension
pertaining to or suffering from low blood pressure
Hypertension
abnormally high blood pressure
Hemorrhagic shock
Severe bleeding or loss of body fluid from trauma, burns, surgery, or dehydration from severe nausea and vomiting. Blood pressure decreases, thus blood flow is reduced to cells, tissue, and organs.
Possible causes of hemorrhagic shock
Trauma, gastrointestinal bleeding, vascular disruption, vaginal bleeding, bleeding as a function of pregnancy
Effect of beta blocker medication on the heart
Inhibits the​ heart's ability to beat faster
True/False: Patients with irreversible shock can be saved from death
False, domino effect is set off and it's very impossible for patient to survive
AAVVroom
Arteries take blood Away, Veins Vroom the blood to the heart
Best way to address shock in pre-hospital setting
Address anything hindering ABCDs, and get the patient transported
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