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sexual orientation

An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)


Attracted to the same sex


person who is attracted to a member of the opposite sex


a person who is sexually attracted to both sexes


gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, queer, and/or questioning

problem with kinsey scale

if focus on sexual behaviour not emotion....

klein sexual orientation grid

it considers sexual behaviour, sexual fantasies, sexual attraction, social preference


sexual and emotionally attracted to both sexes to varying degrees....

sexuality environmental , social, biological


psychoanaltic theory

- gay identity might result from parental behaviour
- emotionally distant father and overbearing mothers

learning theory

bad heterosexual experience cause a person to become gay.


persistant and atypical sex interest in non-human objects, physically or emotionally painful experiences, or non-consenting individuals

What do almost all are men who have more than one paraphilia have

emotional problems, impulse control disorders, and sexual dysfunctions


Manifestations of unresolved inner conflicts caused by traumatic events in childhood

Lovemaps (Money)

Template for ideal romantic partner and lover

Courtship disoder theory

Due to disturbed courtship cycle


Childhood experiences influence sexual expression
nonsexual object or behavior may take on erotic undertones through association with sexual pleasure
behavior is reinforced by rewarding consequences


neural and hormonal differences may exist in some men
men show activity in left front lobe instead of right when paraphilia is present
anatomical diffeents in frontal and temporal lobes
alterations in dopamine, seratonin and testosterone levels
brain lesions, turmors, and epilepsy alter sexual interests


A paraphilia consisting of recurrent and intense sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors that involve the use of a nonliving object, often to the exclusion of all other stimuli.

transvestic fetishism

men become aroused by wearing womens clothing
different from drag queens and transsexuals


men become aroused by thinking of themselves as women


bondge and discipline, dominance and submission

BDSM relationship is based on

concept of partners voluntarily taking on deliberately unequal yet complementary roles
top or dominant partner controls and may discipline submissive partner
bottom or submissive partner is controlled


use of restraints during sex play


sexual pleasure is derived from being hurt or humiliated as part of a sex ritual


sexual pleasure is derived from intentionally hurting or humiliating others


actvities include knives, suffocation, or electricity

why do people enjoy SBDM

biological - pain or stress may release pleasure substances
psychological - departure from everyday lives
behavior - childhood experiences may influence later sexual development


esposing genitals to unsuspecting persons


excited in part by power they have by surprising victims
one of the most common paraphilias in US
children and women are frequent targets

telephone scatologia

-sexual arousal through the use of obscene language to unsuspecting victims over the phone
- sexual gratification comes from response
etiology is unclear, may be a form of sexual terrorism against women
- callers are typically heterosexual men with limited social interactions

telephone scatologia types

telephone masturbator
ingratiating seducer
shock callers
annoyance creaators
panic creators


sexual arousal is depending on sexually asaulting or raping non-consenting victim


when a person doesn't experience any sexual attraction
incidence may be difficult to establish
may have sex out of curiousity or to please partner


excessive interest in sex, to the point where it interrupts daily life

Defense of Marriage Act

(1996) Defines marriage as man-woman. No state is forced to recognize same-sex marriage (unconstitutional exception to full faith & credit clause?)


An irrational hostility, hatred, or fear of homosexuals.


gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, queer, and/or questioning

The Kinsey scale problems

Categories are ambiguous and open to interpretation
Scale focuses on sexual behaviors rather than emotions or sexual identity
Does not account for specific life situations
Does not consider changes in orientation over time

Klein sexual orientation grid (KSOG)

Too complex
Not everyone agrees with seven parameters

The Prevalence of Homosexuality

Very difficult to determine incidence of homosexuality in a population

Psychosocial Theories of Homosexuality

that sexual orientation is learned

pre nantal - gay

Maternal immune hypothesis
Man's sexual orientation is related to number of older brothers he has; prenatal factors in mother's womb play a role

LeVay Study

Possible brain differences

Larger hypothalamus volume (INAH-3) in heterosexual men than in women and gay men

coming out

Acknowledging to oneself and others that one is gay or lesbian
Benefits - Individual can live openly and honestly, which is psychologically beneficial

coming out problems

Losing friends, family, and jobs
Those whose parents reject them for being gay are more likely to be depressed, lonely, and isolated
About 18% of hate crimes


from self-awareness, to self-acceptance, to disclosure

sibling study

to discover concordance rate of homosexuality
Genetic component to homosexuality, but same-sex attraction is not entirely genetic
Some environmental factors influence male sexual orientation
Genetics less of a factor in female sexual orientation
No distinct gay gene has been identified, but involvement of chromosomes has been suggested

Learning theory

Early experiences are important in development of sexual orientation
Bad heterosexual experiences cause a person to become gay (e.g., sexual abuse of opposite sex)
No social factors has ever been found completely responsible for same-sex attraction

Why people have sex

Goal attainment

Sexual attitudes and behaviors influenced by

Physical fitness, hormones, and gender


Stimulation of one's own genitals, which produces feelings of pleasure and often results in orgasm
Men and women of all ages masturbate for many reasons, including pleasure, relaxation, and to relieve sexual tension
Allows both men and women to learn about their bodies and their sexual response
Most prevalent sexual behavior


Mental imagery that
is sexually arousing
Erotic dreams
Dreams with an erotic content
Some can result in orgasm
Nocturnal emissions or wet dreams (males)
Negatively correlated with frequency of masturbation

oral sex

male or femal genitals stimulated by a partner's mouth/tongue

sexual position

Male on top and woman underneath (missionary); female on top and male underneath; side by side; rear entry

Masters and Johnson's tips to a health sex life

Always remember that good sex begins while your clothes are still on.
Take time to think about yourself as a sexual being.
Take responsibility for your own sexual pleasure.
Talk with your partner about sex.


Unlawful intercourse with an individual without their consent.

Theories of rape

Feminist theory

Aggravated Sexual Assault (Statutory Rape)

Victim is under 14
Weapon or threat of weapon is used
Victim is physically helpless or mentally defective
Actor is aided or abetted by one or more other persons

Feminist theory

Rape is a tool used by men in our society to keep women submissive and powerless

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