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VPN (Virtual Private Network)

A connection that provides the functionality of a privately owned network while using the internet.


A text file created by a web site and stored on a visitor's hard disk.

Field Check

Determines if the characters in a field are of the proper type.

Sign Check

Determines if the data in a field have the appropriate arithmetic sign.

Limit Check

Tests a numerical amount to ensure that it does not exceed a predetermined value.

Range Check

"Similar to a limit check, but with both upper and lower limits."

Size Check

Ensures that the input data will fit into the assigned field.

Completeness Check

Determines if all required data items have been entered.

Validity Check

Compares the ID code or account number in transaction data with similar data in the master file to verify that the account exists.

Reasonableness Test

Determines the correctness of the logical relationship between two data items.

Check Digit

"A digit computed from the other digits in a number (i.e. an ID number, or credit card number)"

Check Digit Verification

Verifying that the check digit matches what it should.

Sequence Check

Tests if a batch of input data is in the proper numerical or alphabetical sequence.

Batch Totals

Summaries of key values for a batch of input records.

Financial Total

"Sums a field that contains dollar values, such as the dollar amount of all sales for a batch of sales transactions."

Hash Total

"Sums a nonfinancial numeric field, such as the total of the quantity ordered field in a batch of sales transactions."

Record Count

Sums the number of records in a batch.


When the system requests each input data item and waits for an acceptable response.


When the system displays a document with highlighted blank spaces and waits for the data to be entered.

Closed-loop verification

Checks the accuracy of input data by using it to retrieve and display other related information.

Transaction Log

A log that includes a detailed record of all transaction data.

Header Record

"Contains the file name, expiration date, and other identification data at the beginning of a file."

Trailer Record

"Contains the batch totals calculated during input, located at the end of a file."

Transposition Error

An error in which two adjacent digits were inadvertently reversed.

Cross-footing Balance Test

Compares the results produced by both summing columns and rows.

Zero-balance Test

Checks that accounts that should be zeroed out are in fact zeroed out.

Concurrent Update Controls

Protect records from errors that occur when two or more users attempt to update the same record simultaneously.

Parity Bit

An extra digit added to every character to help ensure the correct transmission of data.

Parity Checking

Verifying that there are the proper number of bits set to the value 1 in each character received.

Echo Check

When the sending and receiving systems perform the same check and compare to verify accuracy.

Fault Tolerance

Enabling a system to continue functioning in the event that a particular component fails.

Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)

"Provides protection in the event of a prolonged power outage, using battery power to enable the system to operate lone enough to back up critical data and safely shut down."


"An exact copy of the most current version of a database, file, or software program."


The process of installing the backup copy for use.

Incremental Backup

Copying only the data items that have changed since the last backup.

Differential Backup

Copies all changes made since the last full backup.

Recovery Point Objective (RPO)

Represents the maximum length of time for which a company is wiling to risk the possible loss of transaction details.

Real-time Mirroring

Maintaining two copies of the database at two separate data centers at all times and updating both copies in real-time as each transaction occurs.


A copy of the database at a point in time.


"A copy of a database, master file, or software that will be retained indefinitely as an historical record, usually to satisfy legal and regulatory requirements."

Recovery Time Objective (RTO)

Represents the time following a disaster by which the organization's information system must be available again.

Cold Site

"An empty building that is prewired for necessary telephone and internet access, plus a contract with one or more vendors to provide all necessary computer and other office equipment within a specified period of time."

Hot Site

A facility that is not only prewired for telephone and internet access but also contains all the computing and office equipment the organization needs to perform its essential business activities.

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