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Sum of an organism's chemical reactions from molecular interactions

Catabolic Pathways vs. Anabolic Pathways

Catabolic breaks complex molecules to release energy.

Anabolic builds complex molecules to use energy.

Metabolic Pathways

Begins with a specific molecule & is catalyzed by enzymes until it reaches a product.


Capacity to cause change and exists in several forms

Kinetic/Thermal Energy (Basics)

Kinetic E is related to motion.

Thermal Energy is KE of random atom & molecule movement.

Potential/Chemical Energy (Basics)

Potential E is related to location.

Chemical Energy is PE that's releasable in chemical reactions.

∆G (Basics)

Energy Changes of chemical reactions which lets us identify if they need energy

Free Energy

Energy that can do work when the temp & pressure is uniform such as in a cell.

Exergonic vs. Endergonic Reactions

Exergonic: Releases Free Energy & is spontaneous. (So - ∆G)

Endergonic: Absorb Free Energy & isn't spontaneous. (So + ∆G)

Cells & Equilibrium

Cells aren't in equilibrium & are open systems. The Catabolic Pathways release free energy.

Cells (Work Basics)

Technical, Transport, & Chemical. These are powered by ATP Hydrolysis.

Energy Coupling (Basic)

Cells managing energy by using an Exergonic Process to do an Endergonic Process.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP Basics)

Provides the energy that runs most of a cell's function

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP Structure)

3 Phosphates - 1 Ribose - 1 Adenine

ATP to Energy Process

ATP & H2O kills each other to an ADP, a Phosphate, & Energy

Energy Coupling (Example)

The Exergonic Process of ATP Hydrolysis gives the energy for Endergonic Processes


ATP sends a Phosphate Group to make phosphorylated molecules for Endergonic Reactions

Phosphotase vs. Kinase

Phosphotase removes PO4. Kinase adds PO4.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP Regeneration)

Energy from Catabolic Reactions combines a Phosphate Group to ADP to create another ATP

Metabolic Equilibrium

When the cell stops working due to environmental conditions & the cell dies.

Aerobic Respiration

PPT Image

Anaerobic Respiration

PPT Image

Aerobic Respiration vs. Anaerobic Respiration Net Results

Aerobic is preferred since it produces 66% more energy than Anaerobic.

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