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30 terms

biology 101 test 3

STUDY
PLAY
how cells are formed
They are formed from pre- existing cells
why do cells divide
to get the organism to grow, repair and reproduce
Cells
The basic unit of life and the essential link between generations
cells contain
coded information called DNA
DNA
collectively called the organisms genome
Genomes
organized into informational units call genes
Genes
control the activities of the cell
Found in Genes
DNA
housed on chromosomes
genes
composed on chromatid
chromosomes
how many chromosomes do humans have
46
Carries genetic information
chromosomes
Each chromosome may contain
1000s of genes
once cells reach a certain size
they must either stop growing or divide
cell cycle aka generation time
time it takes for one cell to divide
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm
interphase
resting phase cells spend most of its life in it
one cell cycle =
mitosis and cyto kinesis
mitosis
involves the nucleus, insures the the nucleus receives the same number of chromosomes present in the original nucleus: actual dividing time
interphase
chromosomes duplicate not considered and actual phase longest phase in mitosis
prophase
chromosomes become visible sister chromatid form nuclear membrane breaks up spindle form
sister chromatids
duplicate chromosomes or identical pairs
centromere
area of attachment that holds sister chromatids together
poles
areas of electromagnetism ( a pull happens)
miotic spindles
fibers that form from the poles aid seperation of sister chromatids
metaphase
all chromosomes ar aligned in the middle sister chromatid go toward opposite poles. spindle fibres attach to chromosomes
anaphase
sister chromatids seperate and move toward opposite poles becomes independent chromosome, chromatids seperate at the centromere
telophase
chromosomes arrive at the poles nucleuar envelope forms to produce two daughter cells
cytokinesis
forms two daughter cells each has the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent cell. begins in telelphase
asexual reproduction
occurs my mitosis so every organism is the same.