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physical geography of China

created natural barriers to the outside world

along rivers

where first farming settlements of China developed

the center of early Chinese society

the family

Who taught that loyalty and respect within the family would spread to society at large


poor young men could hold government jobs because...

the examinations were based on Confucius's teachings

outlawed the teachings of Confucius

Shi Huangdi

main goal of this emperor was to expand the Chinese empire by conquering other lands


invention of paper happened during which dynasty


why did the influence of Confuciansim grow during Han dynasty

to bring back the respect for tradition


the kind of money used by a group or a nation


a leader of an armed group


a valuable cloth originally made only in China from threads spun by caterpillars called silkworms

Shi Huangdi

emperor of the Qin dynasty; was the first to unify the Chinese empire

Liu Bang

founder of the Han dynasty of China in 202 B.C.; born a peasant; stabilized the government and promoted education


Chinese emperor from 140 B.C. to 86 B.C.; brought the Han dynasty to its peak; expanded the Chinese empire; made Confucianism the state religion

Sima Qian

Chinese scholar, astronomer, and historian; wrote the most important history of ancient China, "Historical Records"

silk road

an ancient trade route between China and Europe


yellow-brown soil


a protective wall that controls or holds back water

extended family

closely related people of several generations, such as brothers and sisters, parents, uncles and aunts, cousins, grandparents, and great-grandparents

civil service

the group of people whose job is to carry out the work of government


great Chinese philosopher and teacher


system of beliefs and values

Middle Kingdom

what the ancient Chinese called China because they thought that China was the center of the earth

Huang He

Yellow River; also called "China's Sorrow" because it wipes out villages when it floods

Yangzi River

the longest river in China and Asia


a philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius and traditionally thought of as one of the core elements of Chinese culture

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