Media - subject specific vocabulary

Active audience
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Terms in this set (131)
Binary OppositionThe contrast between two ideas or concepts, such as good/evil, male/female. Usually the contrast causes conflict that drives the narrative.BrandA type of product that is manufactured and marketed under a particular name, logo and design.By-lineThe printed line of text in a newspaper/magazine that names the writer of an article.Camera movementThe way the camera is moved during filming to add depth, interest and variation for the viewer, such as pan and track.CensorshipThe controls and regulations that exist about media content. Censorship powers can be held by the governments or regulatory bodies.CGIComputer-generated imagery is the application of computer graphics to printed or moving image media. The term CGI commonly refers to 3D computer graphics used for special effects in film sequences.CodeA communication system which includes signs, rules and shared understanding. Examples include the English Language, non-verbal codes, print codes and editing codes.Colour paletteThe suite of colours that are used in the creation of media texts, such as websites and magazines, to reflect a brand and appeal to its audience.Commercial broadcastingPrivately owned media broadcasting of television and radio programming.Concentration of ownershipRefers to number of organisations or individuals who control ownership of the media. Fewer stakeholders hold increasing shares.ConglomerateA media conglomerate is a large corporation that owns a large number of media companies, such as television, radio, internet, publishing - giving the conglomerate control in the market.ConnotationThe meanings of a sign or media product that are made by cultural association. These are often the deeper or underlying meanings. For example, images of a sunset in a film may connote ending or closure.ConsumptionThe act of using media products by watching, listening to or reading them.ContextWe use this term in two ways in media studies. The immediate surroundings of something, ie a news photograph on the front page of The Times. The wider social, cultural or historical circumstances of a media product or process.Continuity editingThe most commonly used type of video editing used in post-production - predominantly used to establish a logical and linear coherence between shots.ConventionsEstablished rules or shared understandings used in the creation media products. Conventions are more likely to be taken for granted as 'the way we do things' rather than formally written down.ConvergenceThe coming together of technologies and institutions to create a new product or media experience.CopyThe written material, as opposed to images, that features in a media text.CountertypeA positive stereotype that reinforces the positive qualities of a person/type of person.Cover priceThe price printed on the cover of a printed media text.Close Up (CU)A camera shot that tightly focuses on a person or object.Crane shotA camera shot that is taken from above the ground high on a crane (also known as jib).Cross-headWords used as a title or sub-heading to break up text in a newspaper or magazine.Cross cutAn editing technique used to establish that action is occurring at the same time.CutA simple editing technique. One shot end and another one begins, with no transitions or effects added.Date lineA line that shows the date that a media publication/article was written/first published.DemergerSeperating a large corporation into two or more smaller organisations.DemographicsThe characteristics and make-up of a sample of the population, eg the age, gender, nationality.DenotationThe literal or surface meaning of sign or media product.desk top publishingDesk top publishing (DTP) software allows the user to create printed media texts with various page layouts and designs.Digital (platform)Digital media is any media that can be created, viewed and distributed digital devices.DistributionThe ways in which media products are made available to audiences either physically or online.DialogueWords spoken by characters in a media product, such as films or television dramas.Diegetic soundActual sound from the world of the film, whether on or off screen.DiversificationLarge corporations spreading their interest and shares in a wide variety of mass media forms.EditingA post-production technique - any arranging, revising and preparing of written, audio or video content to get the piece ready for audience consumption.EditorialAn article in a newspaper or magazine that expresses an opinion on a topical issue.EnigmaA question, mystery or clue that is not immediately resolved which draws the audience in.EthicsThe principles and standards that are upheld in broadcast media, film and the internet.Eyeline matchA film editing technique that makes the audience feel that they are seeing the what the character on screen is seeing.FadeIn video editing post-production, a fade is the transition to and from a blank image.FlashbackA scene in a moving image that is set in an earlier time than the main story.FontThe style and size of text characters on the printed page or screen.FormThe various formats that media texts and products come in, such as newspapers, magazines, films. Each media form will have its own set of codes and conventions.FramingThe way a camera shot is composed.FranchiseA media franchise is a collection of connected media products derived from a single origional source, for example, a film - with a comic and video game also produced about the film.FreelanceA person who is hired by different companies to work on particular projects. Freelancing is commun in many areas of the media.GatekeepingThe way in which information is filtered by the media before it is prepared for publication, broadcast or distribution.GenreA style or category of a media platform.Guerilla marketingLow-cost and unconventional marketing methods with a clear focus on grabbing the audience`s attention.HeadlineThe text, usually in larger font, at the top of the page or article in a newspaper or article, indicating what the content is to the reader.HegemonyThe dominance in the media of a particular social group. For example, in the UK, middle class people dominate the media workforce.Horizontal integrationCompanies who acquire other companies operating in the same sector.House styleThe overall design style of a newspaper, website or magazine. This might include font, colour scheme and layout. The house style sets a product apart from its competition and makes it easily recognisable to its audience.HybridA type of media created through convergence resulting in a new form consisting of different media combined. Can also be used as a way of describing a media product that is a combination of different genres and styles.IconIn semiotics, an con is a sign that physically resembles the thin it stands for (compare with symbol).IdentShort for identifier - can be a short visual image shown on the screen in between television programmes, signalling the channel that is being watched, or an audio 'call sign' to identify a particular radio station/programme.InstitutionsThe organisations that create and distribute media texts, such as the BBC and News International.InteractivityInteractive media allows the user/cosumer to take an active involvement in the media text, even by contributing to it.IntertextualityOften media texts make references to other texts and popular culture or interest and engage the audience.IPSOThe Independent Press Standards Organisation is the independent regulator of the newspaper and magazine industry in the UK.JingleA ahort and catchy piece of music or song/slogan used to promote a product, used particularly in advertising and on the radio.LinksClickable text or images that take users to different pages of a website.LogoThe visual image used to identify a product, brand or company.MastheadA publication's name or title in a distinctive form usually placed at the top of the front page or cover page.Medium/mid shot (MS)A communly used camera shot. Typically it will frame the subject from the waist up or show some background detail in the shot.MediationThe process by which a media product represents an idea, issue, event or group of people to the audience. 'Mediation' suggests that this process always changes the perception of whatever is represented by the media.MergerA combination of two media companies into one - usually to gain more power and influence in the market.MessageThe expected reading that the audience takes from a media text.Mise-en-sceneLiterally 'everything that is in the shot/scene' in a single frame. This is what helps the audience to gain meaning from a scene.Mock-upA rough plan of how the layout of a page of printed media will look.Mode of addressThe way a media product 'speaks' to its audience.ModelA model seeks to capture an idea or concept in a simplified form, often as a graphic or diagram. For example, the linear model of communication.Moral panicThe way that the media stirs up intense feelings because of the way it covers a news event or issue.Multi-mediaTechnology that enables sound, video, text and graphic images to be used in the same media production.NarrativeThe way in which a story or sequence of events is put together in a media text. All media texts have some sort of narrative running through them.News valueWays in which media companies will assess and catagorise news stories and decide on their newsworthiness. Each media publication will have its own news agenda and set of news values.Niche audience/marketA relatively small segment of an audience with specific tastes and interests.Non-diegetic soundSound that is neither on the screen or features in the 'world of the film'. Typically, non-diegetic sound will be sound effects or background music added to create mood and atmosphere.OFCOMThe Office of Communication is a government-approved regulatory body that is responsable for ensuring that the communication and broadcasting industries in the UK operate fairly and competitively. It also protects the public from inappropriate or offensive material.Opening SequenceThe opening section of a film/television drama. Often this is action-packed and ends on a cliffhanger. Opening sequences are also used to introduce key characters or to establish settings.OwnershipThe companies who own the companies that produce and distribute media texts.PanningA basic camera movement - the camera camera sweeps from one side to the other.Passive audienceA passive audience is one that merely observes and takes in a media text without interacting or responding to it.PEGIPan European Game Information - the organisation that judges what the age ratings should be for games. Produces guidence for consumers (mainly aimed at parents) so that they can decide if a game is suitable.PitchAn outline of an idea for the creation of a partcular media product.PlatformThe technologies, software or apps that allow media producers and cosumers to interact, such as social media.Point of view (POV)A first-person camera shot that allows the audience to see from the viewpoint of an individual character.Preferred readingThe interpretation of a media text that the producers intended the audience to have.Pre-productionThe work, planning and research that is done on a media product before the actual production begins.Primary researchOrigional and new research that is carried out to answer particular questions or issues.Prime timeThe times of the day when radio and TV audiences are expected to be at their highest.ProducerThe people who plan, coordinate and create media products.ProductAny media text can also be called a media product.Public service broadcastingTelevision and radio programmes that are broadcast to inform, entertain or educate the public, without trying to make a profit.Qualitative researchQualitative research is used to explore and gain an understanding of audience opinions and motivations.Quantitative researchQuantitative research is the collection of numerical data and statistics.RegulationRules or sets of standards that are expected to be adhered to. Regulatory bodies oversee that this is being done by media companies.RepresentationThe way in which the media 'represents' people and the world around us.Secondary researchSecondary research involves the collation and analysis of research that already exists.SegmentationThe division of audiences into segments and categories.SemioticsThe use and study of sign, sign systems and their meanings. Also known as semiology.SFXSpecial effects. Graphics techniques that are applied to moving images to create special effects.ShotA single image taken by a camera, or a single take of video footage.SignAnything that expresses meaning is a sign. Examples include written or spoken words, an image, a sound, a gesture or an item of clothing.SignpostingThe technique of establishing what the location of a scene is from the beginning. For example, a hospital drama might be signposted by audio of medical equipment or ambulance sirens.SloganA catchy, eye-catching and memorable phrase, often used in advertising.Social media/networkingWebsites, platforms and apps that enable users to communicate with other people across the world.StoryboardA visual representation and plan of how a moving image scene will be shot. Typically includes a sketch of each frame, camera movements, edits and timing, etc.StraplineA cross-column subheading, usually found in newspapers, magazines and websites, that emphasises part of an article or advert.Subscription broadcastingAny platform/broadcaster that offers access to its content for a subscription.SymbolA sign which doesn't physically resemble the thing it stands for. Words are symbols because they don't look like the idea or object that they stand for. The red white and blue tricolour flag is a symbol of France.SynergyWhere two or more media products are linked for commercial purposes, eg a film and a video game based on the film.TeaserA form of trailer that 'teases' the audience about a forthcoming film. Often meant to intrigue, teasers are typically short and aimed at perking interest.TitlesThe opening credits of a television programme or film, including the title but often including information about key personnel and snippets of the product.TrailerA short advert for a forthcoming film. Usually adhering to a particular set of codes and conventions, trailers might include highlights from the film and information about the stars of the film.TreatmentA short outline of an intended media production. This might include written descriptions, sketches and mock-ups.User-generated contentUser generated content (UGC) is any content created and distributed on a particular platform by a user of that platform.Viral marketingA method of marketing which encourages media consumers to share opinion and information about a media product on the internet and on social media.VlogA video blog or video log, usually shortened to vlog, is a form of blog that uses video rather than written text.VoiceoverA segment of narration that is added to a broadcast with the speaker not seen on screen.