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Media - subject specific vocabulary
Terms in this set (131)
The theory that media audiences do not just consume a text passively, they actively engage with it because of personal and social contexts.
A sign or a media product with several possible but different meanings is ambiguous.
A text (copy) that fixes (anchors) an image and its meaning.
In a plot, the character whose function is to disrupt the protagonist - often but not always, a villain.
An original on which many copies are based. Often used in relation to characters in fictional works. Character archetypes include examples such as the rebel, the mother figure, the villain.
The people who consume a media product by watching, listening and reading it.
The technique used to persuade the audience to interpret a media product in a particular way.
Broadcasters' Audience Research Board - the organisation that measures and collects television viewing data in the UK.
British Board of Film Classification - responsible for deciding the age of classification and censorship of all films and video content released In the UK.
Big Close Up (BCU)
An extreme close up camera shot, usually focusing on the face or close detail of the body.
The contrast between two ideas or concepts, such as good/evil, male/female. Usually the contrast causes conflict that drives the narrative.
A type of product that is manufactured and marketed under a particular name, logo and design.
The printed line of text in a newspaper/magazine that names the writer of an article.
The way the camera is moved during filming to add depth, interest and variation for the viewer, such as pan and track.
The controls and regulations that exist about media content. Censorship powers can be held by the governments or regulatory bodies.
Computer-generated imagery is the application of computer graphics to printed or moving image media. The term CGI commonly refers to 3D computer graphics used for special effects in film sequences.
A communication system which includes signs, rules and shared understanding. Examples include the English Language, non-verbal codes, print codes and editing codes.
The suite of colours that are used in the creation of media texts, such as websites and magazines, to reflect a brand and appeal to its audience.
Privately owned media broadcasting of television and radio programming.
Concentration of ownership
Refers to number of organisations or individuals who control ownership of the media. Fewer stakeholders hold increasing shares.
A media conglomerate is a large corporation that owns a large number of media companies, such as television, radio, internet, publishing - giving the conglomerate control in the market.
The meanings of a sign or media product that are made by cultural association. These are often the deeper or underlying meanings. For example, images of a sunset in a film may connote ending or closure.
The act of using media products by watching, listening to or reading them.
We use this term in two ways in media studies. The immediate surroundings of something, ie a news photograph on the front page of The Times. The wider social, cultural or historical circumstances of a media product or process.
The most commonly used type of video editing used in post-production - predominantly used to establish a logical and linear coherence between shots.
Established rules or shared understandings used in the creation media products. Conventions are more likely to be taken for granted as 'the way we do things' rather than formally written down.
The coming together of technologies and institutions to create a new product or media experience.
The written material, as opposed to images, that features in a media text.
A positive stereotype that reinforces the positive qualities of a person/type of person.
The price printed on the cover of a printed media text.
Close Up (CU)
A camera shot that tightly focuses on a person or object.
A camera shot that is taken from above the ground high on a crane (also known as jib).
Words used as a title or sub-heading to break up text in a newspaper or magazine.
An editing technique used to establish that action is occurring at the same time.
A simple editing technique. One shot end and another one begins, with no transitions or effects added.
A line that shows the date that a media publication/article was written/first published.
Seperating a large corporation into two or more smaller organisations.
The characteristics and make-up of a sample of the population, eg the age, gender, nationality.
The literal or surface meaning of sign or media product.
desk top publishing
Desk top publishing (DTP) software allows the user to create printed media texts with various page layouts and designs.
Digital media is any media that can be created, viewed and distributed digital devices.
The ways in which media products are made available to audiences either physically or online.
Words spoken by characters in a media product, such as films or television dramas.
Actual sound from the world of the film, whether on or off screen.
Large corporations spreading their interest and shares in a wide variety of mass media forms.
A post-production technique - any arranging, revising and preparing of written, audio or video content to get the piece ready for audience consumption.
An article in a newspaper or magazine that expresses an opinion on a topical issue.
A question, mystery or clue that is not immediately resolved which draws the audience in.
The principles and standards that are upheld in broadcast media, film and the internet.
A film editing technique that makes the audience feel that they are seeing the what the character on screen is seeing.
In video editing post-production, a fade is the transition to and from a blank image.
A scene in a moving image that is set in an earlier time than the main story.
The style and size of text characters on the printed page or screen.
The various formats that media texts and products come in, such as newspapers, magazines, films. Each media form will have its own set of codes and conventions.
The way a camera shot is composed.
A media franchise is a collection of connected media products derived from a single origional source, for example, a film - with a comic and video game also produced about the film.
A person who is hired by different companies to work on particular projects. Freelancing is commun in many areas of the media.
The way in which information is filtered by the media before it is prepared for publication, broadcast or distribution.
A style or category of a media platform.
Low-cost and unconventional marketing methods with a clear focus on grabbing the audience`s attention.
The text, usually in larger font, at the top of the page or article in a newspaper or article, indicating what the content is to the reader.
The dominance in the media of a particular social group. For example, in the UK, middle class people dominate the media workforce.
Companies who acquire other companies operating in the same sector.
The overall design style of a newspaper, website or magazine. This might include font, colour scheme and layout. The house style sets a product apart from its competition and makes it easily recognisable to its audience.
A type of media created through convergence resulting in a new form consisting of different media combined. Can also be used as a way of describing a media product that is a combination of different genres and styles.
In semiotics, an con is a sign that physically resembles the thin it stands for (compare with symbol).
Short for identifier - can be a short visual image shown on the screen in between television programmes, signalling the channel that is being watched, or an audio 'call sign' to identify a particular radio station/programme.
The organisations that create and distribute media texts, such as the BBC and News International.
Interactive media allows the user/cosumer to take an active involvement in the media text, even by contributing to it.
Often media texts make references to other texts and popular culture or interest and engage the audience.
The Independent Press Standards Organisation is the independent regulator of the newspaper and magazine industry in the UK.
A ahort and catchy piece of music or song/slogan used to promote a product, used particularly in advertising and on the radio.
Clickable text or images that take users to different pages of a website.
The visual image used to identify a product, brand or company.
A publication's name or title in a distinctive form usually placed at the top of the front page or cover page.
Medium/mid shot (MS)
A communly used camera shot. Typically it will frame the subject from the waist up or show some background detail in the shot.
The process by which a media product represents an idea, issue, event or group of people to the audience. 'Mediation' suggests that this process always changes the perception of whatever is represented by the media.
A combination of two media companies into one - usually to gain more power and influence in the market.
The expected reading that the audience takes from a media text.
Literally 'everything that is in the shot/scene' in a single frame. This is what helps the audience to gain meaning from a scene.
A rough plan of how the layout of a page of printed media will look.
Mode of address
The way a media product 'speaks' to its audience.
A model seeks to capture an idea or concept in a simplified form, often as a graphic or diagram. For example, the linear model of communication.
The way that the media stirs up intense feelings because of the way it covers a news event or issue.
Technology that enables sound, video, text and graphic images to be used in the same media production.
The way in which a story or sequence of events is put together in a media text. All media texts have some sort of narrative running through them.
Ways in which media companies will assess and catagorise news stories and decide on their newsworthiness. Each media publication will have its own news agenda and set of news values.
A relatively small segment of an audience with specific tastes and interests.
Sound that is neither on the screen or features in the 'world of the film'. Typically, non-diegetic sound will be sound effects or background music added to create mood and atmosphere.
The Office of Communication is a government-approved regulatory body that is responsable for ensuring that the communication and broadcasting industries in the UK operate fairly and competitively. It also protects the public from inappropriate or offensive material.
The opening section of a film/television drama. Often this is action-packed and ends on a cliffhanger. Opening sequences are also used to introduce key characters or to establish settings.
The companies who own the companies that produce and distribute media texts.
A basic camera movement - the camera camera sweeps from one side to the other.
A passive audience is one that merely observes and takes in a media text without interacting or responding to it.
Pan European Game Information - the organisation that judges what the age ratings should be for games. Produces guidence for consumers (mainly aimed at parents) so that they can decide if a game is suitable.
An outline of an idea for the creation of a partcular media product.
The technologies, software or apps that allow media producers and cosumers to interact, such as social media.
Point of view (POV)
A first-person camera shot that allows the audience to see from the viewpoint of an individual character.
The interpretation of a media text that the producers intended the audience to have.
The work, planning and research that is done on a media product before the actual production begins.
Origional and new research that is carried out to answer particular questions or issues.
The times of the day when radio and TV audiences are expected to be at their highest.
The people who plan, coordinate and create media products.
Any media text can also be called a media product.
Public service broadcasting
Television and radio programmes that are broadcast to inform, entertain or educate the public, without trying to make a profit.
Qualitative research is used to explore and gain an understanding of audience opinions and motivations.
Quantitative research is the collection of numerical data and statistics.
Rules or sets of standards that are expected to be adhered to. Regulatory bodies oversee that this is being done by media companies.
The way in which the media 'represents' people and the world around us.
Secondary research involves the collation and analysis of research that already exists.
The division of audiences into segments and categories.
The use and study of sign, sign systems and their meanings. Also known as semiology.
Special effects. Graphics techniques that are applied to moving images to create special effects.
A single image taken by a camera, or a single take of video footage.
Anything that expresses meaning is a sign. Examples include written or spoken words, an image, a sound, a gesture or an item of clothing.
The technique of establishing what the location of a scene is from the beginning. For example, a hospital drama might be signposted by audio of medical equipment or ambulance sirens.
A catchy, eye-catching and memorable phrase, often used in advertising.
Websites, platforms and apps that enable users to communicate with other people across the world.
A visual representation and plan of how a moving image scene will be shot. Typically includes a sketch of each frame, camera movements, edits and timing, etc.
A cross-column subheading, usually found in newspapers, magazines and websites, that emphasises part of an article or advert.
Any platform/broadcaster that offers access to its content for a subscription.
A sign which doesn't physically resemble the thing it stands for. Words are symbols because they don't look like the idea or object that they stand for. The red white and blue tricolour flag is a symbol of France.
Where two or more media products are linked for commercial purposes, eg a film and a video game based on the film.
A form of trailer that 'teases' the audience about a forthcoming film. Often meant to intrigue, teasers are typically short and aimed at perking interest.
The opening credits of a television programme or film, including the title but often including information about key personnel and snippets of the product.
A short advert for a forthcoming film. Usually adhering to a particular set of codes and conventions, trailers might include highlights from the film and information about the stars of the film.
A short outline of an intended media production. This might include written descriptions, sketches and mock-ups.
User generated content (UGC) is any content created and distributed on a particular platform by a user of that platform.
A method of marketing which encourages media consumers to share opinion and information about a media product on the internet and on social media.
A video blog or video log, usually shortened to vlog, is a form of blog that uses video rather than written text.
A segment of narration that is added to a broadcast with the speaker not seen on screen.
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