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Terms in this set (46)
types of icing
Foam Type icings
Fudge Type icings
Flat type icings
Royal or decorators icing
Functions of Icings
Contribute flavor and richness
Improve keep qualities by forming protective coatings around cakes
Sugar syrup that is crystalized to a smooth creamy white mass
When applied it sets up to a shiny non stick coating
Mostly purchased in bake shops due to its difficulty to make
Typically used for napoleons, éclairs, petit fours, and some cakes
Light smooth mixtures of fat and sugar
Sometimes they contain eggs to increase their smoothness or lightness
five basic kinds of buttercreams
Simple Buttercream/decorators buttercream
Meringue Type buttercream
French type buttercream
Pastry Cream type buttercream
Fondant type buttercream
Foam type Icings
Made with a boiling syrup may also contain gelatin to stabilize
Applied to cakes thickly and left with a swirl or peak pattern
Should be made just before using and applied while still warm
Fudge Type Icings
Can be flavored
Rich and heavy
Stable and hold up well on cakes
Also called water icings
Used for coffee cakes, danish pastries and sweet rolls
Warmed to 100 degrees
Decorating or decorators icing
Made with egg whites and very thick
When dry it is hard and brittle
Used mainly for decorations
Thin glossy transparent coating that gives shine to baked products and helps prevent drying out
Sugar syrup or diluted corn syrup brushed onto coffee cakes or Danish pastries
Butter is the preferred fat because of its flavor and melt in the mouth quality
Icings made with only shortening can be unpleasant because the fat congeals and coats the inside of the mouth where it does not melt
Chocolate-melted room temp
Coffee- instant dissolved in water
Extracts and emulsions
Spirits or liqueurs
Sponge Cakes ingredients
Some have added butter
Genoise ( sponge cake in French)
Classically made sponge cakes do not contain any leavening agents
They rely on the air whipped into the eggs for volume
For a heavy or rich sponge cake it contains Equal parts sugar, eggs and flour
Medium Bodied sponge cake will contain 5 oz sugar and flour and 8 oz eggs
In Lighter sponge cakes and most common type sugar and flour are 4 oz and 8 oz eggs.
If butter is used the amount is generally about ¼ of the weight of the sugar or flour and is added at the end.
Function of Ingredients in Sponge Cakes-Eggs
The weight of the Eggs are always the basis for determining the remaining ingredients.
More egg yolks result in a denser sponge with finer pores.
More egg whites results in a lighter sponge with larger pores.
Toughener-provides structure using the protein of the egg
Tenderizer-using the fat from the egg
Increasing the yolks will result in reducing the available water content making it difficult for all or some of the sugar to dissolve.
The eggs should be shelled as close as possible to the time of making the sponge.
Carton pasteurized eggs whites and egg yolks are acceptable to use.
Finer grade sugar can be used to ensure the sugar dissolves easily.
Too little sugar will affect the color and taste.
Good ratio of starch and protein
Some gluten is necessary to bind and hold the structure but too high of percentage makes the cake rubbery and hard to work with and results in a tough chewy sponge.
Flour with too much starch such as cake flour will produce a light and tender sponge but the structure will collapse when baked.
It is best to use a blend of cake and bread flours.
Pure starch such as potato flour and cornstarch can be used to weaken the gluten but no more than half the weight of the flour should be replaced.
Flour should always be sifted
Sifted with other dry ingredients including unsweetened cocoa powder.
Fold in the flour being careful not break any of the air bubbles you incorporated
Never sift the flour into the eggs or use a mixer
Driers-absorb moisture-flours and starches, cocoa and milk solids
Improves quality of finished product
Extends the shelf life
can be added up to 2/3 of the weight of the sugar and should be melted but not hot
Always added last after the flour has been completely incorporated, otherwise the butter will surround any small flour lumps and you wont be able to break them up.
Nut Paste and candied fruit
Added in heavy sponge cakes only
can be added without reformulating the recipe but butter is generally left out
Ground nuts should be sifted with the flour
Fine structure of the nuts will absorb moisture
Decrease the weight of the flour by 1 ounce for every 3 ounces of ground nuts added.
The amount of ground nuts added cannot be higher than the weight of the sugar.
Unsweetened cocoa powder, unsweetened chocolate and sweet chocolate
Unsweetened cocoa powder may be substituted for cake flour in equal weight. No more than 3 ounces of cocoa powder should be used for every one pound flour.
Sifted with dry ingredients
Unsweetened chocolate can be added but not substituted at a ratio of no more than 5 ounces per one pound of flour.
Sweet chocolate may be added at the same rate but the sugar should be decreased by 2 ounces. Fold the chocolate into a small amount of batter to temper it then fold it into the remaining batter
Using this method the best results are achieved with cakes containing a chemical leavening agent.
Place eggs, sugar and salt ( if being used) in a mixer bowl
Heat over simmering water to about 110 degrees whipping continuously
Test to make sure sugar is dissolved by rubbing batter in fingers
Remove from heat and continue whipping at high speed until the mixture has cooled and slightly fluffy
Sift the flour and cornstarch together and fold into the batter by hand
Fold in the melted butter
Divide batter evenly between pans
Cold Foam Method
The eggs and sugar are placed directly in the mixer bowl and whipped until creamy and light in color
make sure that the foam has reached max volume
The butter can be added, but is usually left out since this method is used when the sponge will be soaked in a liqueur or flavoring
The sugar melts in the oven instead of over a water bath, so there are larger air bubbles in the finished sponge
This is beneficial when the cake is used for the soaked-sponge desserts
Other Foaming method
The eggs are the first thing to be separated
The yolks are whipped with part of the sugar to a light and fluffy consistency
The whites and the remaining sugar are whipped to soft peaks
The yolks are gradually folded into the whites
The melted butter is added last
If almond paste is used, its folded into the yolks first and the mixture is then folded into the whites
The sponge tends to shrink away from the sides of the pan more than desirable
Its best not to grease the pans
Most common method used today
Quick and foolproof
A whipping agent that contains a molecule that preserves the emulsion of fats and water
Allows the batter to hold the air that has been whipped together
Uses baking powder and doesn't rely on air as a leavening agent
Doesn't have to go in the oven right away
Ladyfinger Sponge Method
Also known as a piped sponge
Used for several classic desserts as well as cookies
More air is whipped into the batter so that it can be piped into various shapes without running
Meant to be very dry after baking
They easily absorb moisture from fillings or syrup
Comparable to the ladyfinger sponge
Has a lighter structure due to less flour and more egg whites
The batter should be immediately piped out and baked as soon as its finished
The mixture will become tough if left to stand too long
cakes made using the creaming method
cakes using the two-stage method, angel food method and the chiffon method
The conventional method used for many cookie doughs, butter cakes, and pound cakes
The ingredients should be at room temperature
The fat must be beaten until its light and fluffy
The eggs must be added one at a time, allowing each to be absorbed before the next is added
The dry and liquid ingredients should be added alternately
Two-Stage or High ratio
Foolproof way of mixing a cake base
Whole eggs, sugar, cake flour, and baking powder are placed in a mixer and stirred at low speed to form a paste
Shortening is added and the mixture is whipped at high speed for 2 minutes
Milk or water is added with a flavoring and then the batter is whipped at high speed for a minute
Used for both cold-method genoise-type sponge and baking powder cake bases
The egg yolks are first whipped with a small amount of sugar
The egg whites are whipped separately
Its possible to whip the egg whites to stiff peaks, which will give the cake a light texture and a greater volume
Angel Food Method
Doesn't contain fat or chemical leaveners
Relies solely on stabilized egg white foam for leavening
The foam results from a combined effort of various proteins to increase the thickness of the albumen and produce a fine mesh of foam
Have a higher sugar content than any other sponge or butter cake
Resembles the angel food method, the texture is light and fluffy from the whipped egg whites
Much easier to make
They don't depend on the air whipped into the egg whites for leavening because there's baking powder present
The whipped whites are folded into the batter containing the yolks, oil, water, and flour
Chiffon cakes using baking powder are the most common variety
Pans-should be prepared for Mis en place
Pans should be buttered and flour or sprayed and floured
Batter should be baked immediately or the air bubbles will start to break
For chiffon and two stage the side should not be greased since they need the walls to cling to in order to rise.
Angel food cake pans should never be greased.
Temperatures- depend on the type and size of cake
Storage of Sponge Cakes
Unmold sponge cakes when completely cool
Store in wrapped saran wrap
If refrigerated the tops will be come soft it must be removed before it is used
three main goals in mixing
To combine all ingredients into a smooth uniform batter
To form and incorporate air cells into the batter
To develop the proper texture in the finished product
Two major ingredients in cakes, fat and water (including the water in milk and eggs) are by nature unmixable
This is called an emulsion
Properly mixed cake batter contain a water in fat emulsion, that is the water is held by tiny droplets surrounded by fat and other ingredients.
Curdling occurs when fat can no longer hold the water in emulsion, the mixture then changes to a fat in water mixture with small particles of fat surrounded by water and other ingredients.
factors that can cause curdling wrong type of fat
Having ingredients too cold ( room temperature ingredients around 70 degrees)
Mixing the first stage of the procedure too quickly(Fat and sugar must be creamed in order to form a good cell structure)
Adding liquids too quickly( they will not be absorbed properly if added too quickly)
Adding too much liquid
Forming Air Cells
Ingredients temperature-cold fat below 60 is too hard to form good air cells
Warm fat above 75 is too soft.
Mixing speed should be at medium or the friction can warm the ingredients too much.
In foam cakes(sponge, angel food and chiffon) whipping may be done at high speed at first but the final stages should be at a medium speed in order to retain the air cells.
types of cakes
High-Fat Cakes-Creaming method and Two Stage method
Low fat or Egg Foam Cakes-Sponge method, angel food method, chiffon method, combination creaming sponge method
Common Faults AND CAUSES-Volume and Shape
Too Little Flour
Too Much Liquid
Too Little leavening
Oven too hot
Batter spread unevenly
Uneven oven heat
Too Much sugar
Oven too hot
Too little sugar
Oven not hot enough
Burst or cracked:
Too much flour or flour too strong
Too little liquid
Wrapping before cool
Dense or heavy:
Too little leavening
Too much liquid or sugar or shortening
Oven not hot enough
Coarse or irregular:
Too much leavening
Too little egg
Too much leavening
Too much shortening
Too much sugar
Wrong kind of flour
Flour too strong
Too much flour
Too little sugar or shortening
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