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25 terms

Chapter 6 Humans in the Biosphere

Chapter 6 Humans in the Biosphere
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agriculture
the practice of farming
monoculture
farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year
green revolution
the development of highly productive crop strains and the use of modern agricultural techniques to increase yields of food crops
renewable resource
resource that can regenerate quickly and that is replaceable
nonrenewable resource
resource that cannot be replenished by natural processes
sustainable development
using natural resources at a rate that does not deplete them
soil erosion
wearing away of surface soil by water and wind
desertification
in areas with dry climates, a process caused by a combination of poor farming practices, overgrazing, and drought that turns productive land into desert
deforestation
destruction of forests
aquaculture
the raising of aquatic organisms for human consumption
smog
mixture of chemicals that occurs as a gray-brown haze in the atmosphere
pollutant
harmful material that can enter the biosphere through the land, air, or water
acid rain
rain containing nitric and sulfuric acids
biodiversity
biological diversity; the sum total of the variety of organisms in the biosphere
ecosystem diversity
variety of habitats, living communities, and ecological processes in the living world
species diversity
number of different species in the biosphere
genetic diversity
sum total of all the different forms of genetic information carried by all organisms living on Earth today
extinction
disappearance of a species from all parts of its geographical range
endangered species
species whose population size is rapidly declining and will become extinct if the trend continues
habitat fragmentation
splitting of ecosystems into small fragments
biological magnification
increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher trophic levels in a food chain or food web
invasive species
plants and animals that have migrated to places where they are not native
conservation
wise management of natural resources, including the preservation of habitats and wildlife
ozone layer
atmospheric layer in which ozone gas is relatively concentrated
global warming
increase in the average temperatures on Earth