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58 terms

Chapter 3 sections 1-4 Life Science Concepts

Any substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler form
Elements found in the body
Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Phosphorus Sulfur
Made of only one kind of atom
Two or more elements chemically combined
Smallest unit of a compound
Water (chemical symbol)
Needed for chemical reactions within the cells
Carbon Dioxide (chemical symbol)
Smallest unit of a compound
- contain carbon
- do not contain carbon
Examples of inorganic compounds
Water, salt.
Organic Compounds in Living Things
Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
an energy-rich organic compounds;
Starches and sugars; Fruits, vegetables, potatoes, rice, pasta, bread
examples of carbohydrates
Carbohydrates make up some cell parts
cellulose is found in cell walls of plants
Contain even more energy than carbs
lipids give the cell
long-term energy
Main ingredient of cell membranes
Proteins examples
Meat, eggs, fish, nuts, beans
Proteins Structure
Made up of amino acids :20 kinds that can combine in different combinations
Proteins Function
make up organelles and enzymes
Nucleic Acids
Contain instructions that cells need to do jobs
Two types of Nucleic Acids
Genetic material that carries info about organism Passes on info to offspring. Found in chromatin in nucleus
In charge of protein production. Found in cytoplasm and in nucleus
Three methods for material movement
Diffusion, Osmosis, Active Transport
Main method of small molecule movement across cell membrane
Movement of small molecule from area of high to low concentration
process known as diffusion
when diffusion occurs
Collisions cause molecules to spread out
it is a form of passive transport- no energy required
Passive transport
Diffusion of water through cell membrane
importance of osmosis
without adequate amount of water cells cannot function properly
Active Transport
Movement of materials using cellular energy
in Active Transport
Transport Proteins "pick up" molecules and carry them in and out of cell
Transport by Engulfing
Cell membrane surrounds a particle and brings it in
Process by which cells capture energy from sun and uses it to make food
Autotrophs like plants
use photosynthesis
photosynthesis reaction
6 CO2 + 6 H2O PRODUCES C6H12O6 + 6 O2
photosynthesis explained
Carbon dioxide + Water PRODUCE Glucose + Oxygen THIS PROCES REQUIRES light energy
photosynthesis 2 stages
Capturing the sun's energy and using energy to make food
photosynthesis STAGE 1
Capturing light : mostly occurs in the chloroplasts in leaves
main pigment in photosynthesis
Responsible for absorbing light
The pigment Chlorophyll uses
captured light as energy for 2nd stage
photosynthesis STAGE 2
Using Energy to make food (sugars) -H2O (via roots) and CO2 (via stomata) go to chloroplasts where chemical reactions result in glucose and oxygen production
In photosynthesis glucose
used by plant for energy
In photosynthesis Oxygen
released back out into atmosphere
Process by which cells obtain energy from glucose Aka. Cellular Respiration
The process of respiration
breathing in O2
Respiration has two stages
1st stage- occurs in cytoplasm
2nd stage- occurs in mitochondria
Respiration 1st stage
Molecules of glucose broken down into smaller molecules
Respiration 2nd stage
Small molecules broken down into even smaller molecules
With the breakaging down of small molecules into smaller ones in respiration 2nd stage
Oxygen is needed and LOTS of ENERGY released
Respiration Equation
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 PRODUCE 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ENERGY
Respiration explained
Glucose and Oxygen PRODUCE Carbon Dioxide and Water
Photosynthesis and Respiration
are a CYCLE
Energy-releasing process that does not require oxygen
2 types of fermentation
Alcoholic fermentation (yeasts)
Lactic Acid Fermentation (painful muscles)