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Terms in this set (56)
How do little pigs get to be big pigs?
Their cells grow and divide over and over again
What is a cell cycle?
The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo
What happens during the cell cycle?
a cell grows, prepares for division and divides into tow new cells, called "daughter cells"
What are "daughter cells"?
new cell from the divided cell
What are the three main stages of the cell cycle?
interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis
What happens during the stage of interphase?
the cell grows, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into two cells
What is the first stage of the cell cycle called?
interphase, is the period before cell division
What is the stage called when the cell grows, makes a copy of its DNA, and prepares to divide into two cells?
What are some things that occur in a cell during the growing part(first part) of interphase?
the cell makes new ribosomes and produces enzymes. Copies are made of the Mitochiondria and chloroplasts
What happens during the second part of interphase after growth occurs?
the cell makes an exact copy of the DNA in its nucleus a process called replication
What is replication?
when the cell makes an exact copy of the DNA
Does replication occur before or after the growth part of interphase?
A daughter cell must have
a complete set of DNA to survive
What happens at the end of replication?
the cell contains two identical sets of DNA
What happens after relplication?
the preparation for cell division begins
What happens at the end of the interphase?
the cell is ready to divide
What are the three substages of interphase?
Growing, Replication(copying DNA), and Preparing for cell division
What is the second stage of cell division called?
What is Mitosis?
is the stage during which the cell's nulceus divides into two new nuclei
What happens during Mitosis?
one copy of the DNA is distributed into each of the two daughter cells.
What are the four parts of Mitosis called?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
What happens during prophase?
the threadlike chromatin in the nucleus condenses to form double-rod structures called chromosomes
During what part of Mitotsis do the chromosomes form?
What do chromosomes consist of?
two identical strands, or chromatids
What is a chromatid?
an identical rod in a chromosome
How are two chromatids held together?
by a structure called a centromere
What does a centromere do?
holds together two chromatids
What are centrioles?
two pairs of cylindrical structures copied during the last part of interphase
What phase are centrioles formed?
What happens to the centrioles at the end of Mitosis(propahse)?
the pairs of centrioles move to opposite sides of the nucleus
What form between the pair of centioles at the end of Mitosis(prophase)?
Spindle fibers form a bridge between the ends of the cell.
What happens to the nuclear envelope at the end of Mitosis(prophase)?
it breaks down
When does the nuclear envelope breakdown?
at the end of the Mitosis(prophase)
What is the second stage of Mitosis called?
What happens during Metaphase?
the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. Each chromosome attaches to a spindle fiber at it centromere
What phase in Mitosis do the chromosomes line up and attches to a spindle fiber at its centromere?
What is the third phase of Mitosis called?
What happens during Anaphse?
The centromers split. The two chromatids separate, and each chromatid becomes a new chromosome. The new chromosomes move to the opposite ends of the cells. The cell stretches out as the opposite ends are pushed apart.
What phase of Mitosis do the centromers split?
What phase of Mitosis does the new chromosomes move to opposite end of the cell?
What happens to the cell when the chromosomes move to the opposite end of the cell during Anaphase?
The cell stretches out as the opposite ends are pushed apart
What is the last phase of Mitosis called?
What happens during Telophase?
The chromosomes begin to stretch out and lose their rodlike appearance. A new nuclear envelope forms around each region of chromosomes
What phase is a new nuclear envelope formed around each region of chromosomes?
What is the final stage of the cell cycle called?
What stage completes the process of cell division?
What happens during the stage of Cytokineisis?
the cytoplasm divides. The organelles are distrubuted into each of the two new cells
During what phase of mitosis does cytokenisis begin?
same time as telophase of Mitosis
What happens when cytokenisis is complete?
two new daughter cells are formed
Do each daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as the original parent cell?
At the end of cytokinesis what phase is then started?
interphase and the cycle begins again.
During cytokinesis what happens to the cell membrane?
it pinches in aroung the middle of the cell. Then the cell splits in two.
What is different in Cytokinesis of the Plant cell compared to the animal cell?
A plant's rigid cell wall cannot squeeze together in the same way as a cell membrane can. Instead a cell plate forms across the middle of the cell.
What does the cell plate develop into?
a new cell membrane between the two daughter cell. New cell walls then form around the cell membrane.
How long does it take for a liver cell to go through one cell cycle?
In human liver cells what stage in the cell cycle takes the longest time?
DNA replication, Interphase
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