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Respiratory system

Produces "air under pressure" which generates speech

Main component of respiratory system



Drawing air into lungs


Expelling air from lungs


Function: set molecules from breath stream into vibration (vocal folds)

Pharyngeal cavity, oral cavity, nasal cavity

the vocal tract contains 3 cavities

Peripheral nervous system, central nervous system, autonomic nervous system

Motor system contains

Vocal fold vibration

Is a result from buildup of air pressure below vocal fold which is responsible for making exhaled air vibrate

Length, mass, and tension

Rate of vibration is determined by


Varies by varying tension of vocal folds
Occurs by moving thyroid cartilage to either an anterior or posterior direction

Tension increases

When thyroid cartilage rocks forward

Tension decreases

When thyroid cartilage rocks backward

Folds widely deprecated (glottis open)

Unrestricted flow of air into lungs


Folds adducted at midline

Source filter theory

Sound source (vocal folds)
Filter (vocal tract)
Radiation (lips)


Used to view the vocal folds


Associated with some form of structural deviation or change in phonation mechanism


Not associated with tissue changes in the vocal folds and related to structure


Loss of voice
vocal folds are abducted


any kind of vocal disorder

breathiness, harshness, hoarseness

disorders of vocal quality


vocal folds slightly open
edema (swelling)


vocal folds pressed together too tightly
neurological diseases, vocal abuse


irregular vocal fold vibration
neurological disease
abnormal growths on folds (nodules, polyps)

oral resonance

results from position of tongue and extent of jaw movement


excessive nasal resonance, insufficiencies with velum, cleft palate, short velum, injury to velum


inability to produce nasal resonance, usually stems from an organic disorder, chronic sinus infection

vocal fold paralysis

paralyzed folds


laryngeal cancer
found more frequently in men than women
physically based disorder


hard waterlike growths
grow quickly
occupy much of glottal area
breathy hoarse voice
surgically removed
physically based disorder

laryngeal web

membranous growth across vocal folds, congenital

vocal nodules

due to frequent friction between folds
usually have breathy, hoarse, voice
treatment: vocal rest (generally clears them)
abused based disorder


softer than nodules
may be filled with fluid
tend to be unilateral
breathiness and hoarseness occur
surgically removed
abuse based disorder

contact ulcers

sores that develop on one or both sides of posterior end
seen in someone who talks excessively
results in low, breathy, hoarse voice
abuse based disorder

behavioral trauma, mechanical trauma, burns

3 primary causes of trauma related disorders

behavioral trauma

vocal abuse/misuse
can cause vocal nodules

mechanical trauma

external sources (car accident, blunt obj striking larynx)
internal sources (improper endoscopic examination, endotracheal intubation, nasogastric tube)

most severe form of mechanical trauma

laryngectomy (removal of vocal folds)


thermal (inhaling hot air or gas/ swallowing hot food/liquid)
chemical (swallowing/inhaling dangerous substance)
can cause a hoarse, breathy voice or loss of voice

ventricular dysphonia

using false vocal folds to produce voice

sex change

conversion voice dysphonia

talking to high

mutational falsetto

spasmodic dysphonia

involuntary muscle movement (abnormal muscle tone)

vocal fold dysfunction

ex: inhaling air and vocal folds closing (not opening)

evaluation of voice disorders

must have medical clearance before beginning voice therapy
(laryngoscopy, endoscopy)


opening that passes through one or more structures that are normally closed

cleft palate

opening running through the soft palate up to the bony roof of the mouth (hard palate)
may also include upper lip

hard palate

bony roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity
formed from the maxillary bones


small bone right under the nose
holds 4 front teeth

palatine bones

back of the hard palate

soft palate

group of muscles covered with mucosal tissue


soft palate

velopharyngeal port

space between the soft palate and posterior pharyngeal wall (back of throat)

nasal cavity

divided by the septum
adds nasal resonance to the voice


clefts are more common in females than males


clefts are highest among Chinese Americans

clefts can affect

lip, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate

unilateral cleft

cleft on one side

bilateral cleft

cleft on both sides

complete cleft

2 palatal shelves totally separated

incomplete cleft

palatal shelves are partially fused

type I

cleft of the soft palate only

type II

cleft of the soft and hard palate up to the premaxilla, normal lip and premaxilla

type III

complete unilateral cleft of the soft palate, hard palate, the lip, and the alveolar ridge, one one side is affected

type IV

complete bilateral cleft of the soft palate, the hard palate, the lip, and the alveolar ridge; both sides are affected

submucous cleft

may not affect speech
palate appears normal
tissue covers palate
can have cleft under tissue
bifid uvula

problems associated with cleft palates

parents are not informed
feeding problems
middle ear disease and hearing impairment
dental problems
communicative disorders

language disorders

possibly due to hearing loss

speech disorders

nasal emission: discharge of air through the nose during speech production. can be silent or audible

resonance and voice disorders

soft spoken

lip surgery

repaired at earliest possible time (6 months)

palatal surgery

improves swallowing and reduced middle ear infection (12-18 months)

pharyngeal flap surgery

helps close the velopharyngeal port (6-12 years)


corrects malocclusions

Right hemisphere injury

Primarily resulting from damage to the right side of the brain


Primarily resulting from damage in left hemisphere (strokes, tumors)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI)

Externally induced injury dispersed throughout the brain


Decline of intellectual capacity

Causes of brain damage

Strokes, neoplasms, traumatic brain injury


Blockage or bursting of an artery causing disruption of blood flow to the brain and resulting in neurological damage to the area of the brain that is supplied by that artery
Also known as CVA


Embolism (clot forms in an artery outside the cerebral artery)
Thrombosis (clot forms inside the cerebral artery)


Cerebral artery bursts, causing blood to be released into the brain tissue causing intense inflammation and swelling (aneurysm)


Malignant or benign
Can impede functioning of adjacent tissue by pressing against it or by obstructing blood circulation


An impaired ability to comprehend or express linguistic symbols, or both


Difficulty naming things


Word substitution problem

Phonemic paraphasia

Based on phonemic similarity

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