How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

87 terms

Exam 4 Part 1

STUDY
PLAY
Respiratory system
Produces "air under pressure" which generates speech
Main component of respiratory system
Lungs
Inhalation
Drawing air into lungs
Exhalation
Expelling air from lungs
Larynx
Function: set molecules from breath stream into vibration (vocal folds)
Pharyngeal cavity, oral cavity, nasal cavity
the vocal tract contains 3 cavities
Peripheral nervous system, central nervous system, autonomic nervous system
Motor system contains
Vocal fold vibration
Is a result from buildup of air pressure below vocal fold which is responsible for making exhaled air vibrate
Length, mass, and tension
Rate of vibration is determined by
Pitch
Varies by varying tension of vocal folds
Occurs by moving thyroid cartilage to either an anterior or posterior direction
Tension increases
When thyroid cartilage rocks forward
Tension decreases
When thyroid cartilage rocks backward
Folds widely deprecated (glottis open)
Unrestricted flow of air into lungs
Phonation
Folds adducted at midline
Source filter theory
Sound source (vocal folds)
Filter (vocal tract)
Radiation (lips)
Laryngoscopy
Used to view the vocal folds
Organic
Associated with some form of structural deviation or change in phonation mechanism
Functional
Not associated with tissue changes in the vocal folds and related to structure
Aphonia
Loss of voice
vocal folds are abducted
Dysphonia
any kind of vocal disorder
breathiness, harshness, hoarseness
disorders of vocal quality
breathiness
vocal folds slightly open
edema (swelling)
harshness
vocal folds pressed together too tightly
neurological diseases, vocal abuse
hoarseness
irregular vocal fold vibration
neurological disease
abnormal growths on folds (nodules, polyps)
oral resonance
results from position of tongue and extent of jaw movement
hypernasality
excessive nasal resonance, insufficiencies with velum, cleft palate, short velum, injury to velum
hyponasality
inability to produce nasal resonance, usually stems from an organic disorder, chronic sinus infection
vocal fold paralysis
paralyzed folds
carcinoma
laryngeal cancer
found more frequently in men than women
physically based disorder
papilloma
hard waterlike growths
grow quickly
occupy much of glottal area
breathy hoarse voice
surgically removed
recurring
physically based disorder
laryngeal web
membranous growth across vocal folds, congenital
vocal nodules
due to frequent friction between folds
bilateral
usually have breathy, hoarse, voice
treatment: vocal rest (generally clears them)
abused based disorder
polyps
softer than nodules
may be filled with fluid
tend to be unilateral
breathiness and hoarseness occur
surgically removed
abuse based disorder
contact ulcers
sores that develop on one or both sides of posterior end
seen in someone who talks excessively
results in low, breathy, hoarse voice
abuse based disorder
behavioral trauma, mechanical trauma, burns
3 primary causes of trauma related disorders
behavioral trauma
vocal abuse/misuse
can cause vocal nodules
mechanical trauma
external sources (car accident, blunt obj striking larynx)
internal sources (improper endoscopic examination, endotracheal intubation, nasogastric tube)
most severe form of mechanical trauma
laryngectomy (removal of vocal folds)
burns
thermal (inhaling hot air or gas/ swallowing hot food/liquid)
chemical (swallowing/inhaling dangerous substance)
can cause a hoarse, breathy voice or loss of voice
ventricular dysphonia
using false vocal folds to produce voice
sex change
conversion voice dysphonia
talking to high
mutational falsetto
spasmodic dysphonia
involuntary muscle movement (abnormal muscle tone)
vocal fold dysfunction
ex: inhaling air and vocal folds closing (not opening)
evaluation of voice disorders
must have medical clearance before beginning voice therapy
(laryngoscopy, endoscopy)
cleft
opening that passes through one or more structures that are normally closed
cleft palate
opening running through the soft palate up to the bony roof of the mouth (hard palate)
may also include upper lip
hard palate
bony roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity
formed from the maxillary bones
premaxilla
small bone right under the nose
holds 4 front teeth
palatine bones
back of the hard palate
soft palate
group of muscles covered with mucosal tissue
velum
soft palate
velopharyngeal port
space between the soft palate and posterior pharyngeal wall (back of throat)
nasal cavity
divided by the septum
adds nasal resonance to the voice
false
clefts are more common in females than males
true
clefts are highest among Chinese Americans
clefts can affect
lip, alveolar ridge, hard palate, soft palate
unilateral cleft
cleft on one side
bilateral cleft
cleft on both sides
complete cleft
2 palatal shelves totally separated
incomplete cleft
palatal shelves are partially fused
type I
cleft of the soft palate only
type II
cleft of the soft and hard palate up to the premaxilla, normal lip and premaxilla
type III
complete unilateral cleft of the soft palate, hard palate, the lip, and the alveolar ridge, one one side is affected
type IV
complete bilateral cleft of the soft palate, the hard palate, the lip, and the alveolar ridge; both sides are affected
submucous cleft
rare
may not affect speech
palate appears normal
tissue covers palate
can have cleft under tissue
bifid uvula
problems associated with cleft palates
parents are not informed
feeding problems
middle ear disease and hearing impairment
dental problems
communicative disorders
language disorders
variable
possibly due to hearing loss
speech disorders
articulation
nasal emission: discharge of air through the nose during speech production. can be silent or audible
resonance and voice disorders
hypernasality
hoarseness
soft spoken
lip surgery
repaired at earliest possible time (6 months)
palatal surgery
improves swallowing and reduced middle ear infection (12-18 months)
pharyngeal flap surgery
helps close the velopharyngeal port (6-12 years)
orthodontics
corrects malocclusions
Right hemisphere injury
Primarily resulting from damage to the right side of the brain
Aphasia
Primarily resulting from damage in left hemisphere (strokes, tumors)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI)
Externally induced injury dispersed throughout the brain
Dementia
Decline of intellectual capacity
Causes of brain damage
Strokes, neoplasms, traumatic brain injury
Stroke
Blockage or bursting of an artery causing disruption of blood flow to the brain and resulting in neurological damage to the area of the brain that is supplied by that artery
Also known as CVA
Ischemic
Embolism (clot forms in an artery outside the cerebral artery)
Thrombosis (clot forms inside the cerebral artery)
Hemorrhage
Cerebral artery bursts, causing blood to be released into the brain tissue causing intense inflammation and swelling (aneurysm)
Neoplasms
Malignant or benign
Can impede functioning of adjacent tissue by pressing against it or by obstructing blood circulation
Aphasia
An impaired ability to comprehend or express linguistic symbols, or both
Anomia
Difficulty naming things
Paraphasia
Word substitution problem
Phonemic paraphasia
Based on phonemic similarity