Intro into Communication WGU
Terms in this set (145)
Fundamental Attribution Error
A mistake we make when we attribute others positive characteristics and successes to external situation factors and negative factors to who they are
complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society
reflect the unique beliefs, ways of thinking, communication patterns and styles, and customs of members of particular groups that exist within the umbrella culture-Southerners, college students, fraternity members, engineers, Easterners, gamers, the Amish, vegetarians, Los Angeles Lakers fans
value competitiveness and achievement, even at the expense of interpersonal relationships;emphasize their expertise, speak assertively, and use nonverbal cues such as standing behind a podium or wearing clothing that communicates success and achievement
relationships, compassion, and nurturing are highly valued. Cooperation, listening, and showing empathy are important communication skills. Non-verbally, members of feminine cultures will touch others, smile, and stand closer to others
the process of our world becoming ever more connected in economic, political, organizational, and personal terms as transportation and telecommunication systems improve
Set a goal
Create a strategy
Execute the strategy and evaluate the results
Modify negative perceptions
occur when, in interpreting our own or others' behavior, we rely on faulty explanations, reasons, or information.
Locus of Causation
refers to whether the communicator's behavior was motivated by an internal state (such as intelligence, compassion, or honesty) or an external factor (such as resources, luck, favoritism, or the situation)
the deliberate use of verbal and nonverbal messages to create a particular impression among others
values people who are assertive and speak for themselves, independent, and not reliant on others to any great extent; tend to remain somewhat emotionally disconnected or distant from others.
value their membership in their particular in-group to such an extent that they place a greater importance on their role within the group than their role as an individual; tend to take care of one another, avoid competition with other group members, and collaborate with respect and deference.
High Context Communication
rely heavily on environmental cues, and, as a result, implicitly understand what is being communicated; ely more on nonverbal communication than straightforward verbal messages
Low Context Communication
require explicit or clear verbal messages to understand a message; tend to spoon-feed material to their direct reports, leaving them very little to figure out on their own
The emphasis that a group places on status, rank, and power influences the communication patterns and styles of that group
High Power Distance
a great deal of value on social rank and the status associated with certain occupations or political offices
Low Power Distance
tend to communicate in ways that promote equality and diminish the barriers between people that status and rank create.
tend to like doing one thing at a time, being punctual, and concentrating fully to meet their commitments, rarely cancel plans, tend to be very structured in their use of time and time lines, and can be highly irritated by interruptions or delays
The belief that ones own culture and lifestyle are superior to all others.
tend to like working on multiple things at one time, flexible in terms of starting times for appointments and deadlines. They change plans and priorities easily, and the border between work or professional time and family or personal time is fluid for them
Competent Intercultural Communication Skills
1. Prepare for intercultural situations by learning all that you can about the cultural norms
2. Adapt to the norms of your host culture
3. Be aware that everyone is influenced by his or her cultural and co-cultural affiliations
4. Attempt to be more tolerant of ambiguity
5. Use labels and generalizations with caution
anxious or avoidance of using new media
a device that moves messages over distance or through time so that people who are not face-to-face can communicate. The plural form of medium is media.
digital or networked information and communication technologies that have emerged since the latter part of the twentieth century
the skill that allows communicators to figuratively stand in one another shoes and assume one another social roles and perspective
involves instant replies and back-and-forth, real-time interaction
occurs outside of the constraints of time and place
the connections among devices and the people who use them
refers to characteristics of the speaker. Influence through speech is achieved, in part, when listeners believe that the speaker is credible; refers to a speaker's trustworthiness
the ability to arouse emotion within the audience
refers to discourse that is supported by logical reasoning
descriptions of the ways in which arguments can go wrong
fallacy of inductive reasoning that comes to a general conclusion based on too few or unrepresentative examples
When someone presents a weak version of an argument in order to refute it and claim victory, it is as though they knock down a straw person rather than a real person.
Post hoc ergo propter hoc
Latin for "after, therefore because of," this fallacy occurs when one event that precedes a second event is assumed to have caused the second event; resembles superstition.
occurs when a speaker presents only two solutions to a problem, ignoring other solutions either purposefully or out of ignorance
Latin for "about the person" occurs when someone refutes an argument by attacking the person who presented the argument rather than the argument itself.
Appeal to Misplaced Authority
relies on the reputation of an expert in an unrelated field.
Informative Speech (presentation)
designed to create, further, or alter the audience's factual beliefs about a topic.
Types Informative Presentations
Goals of Persuasion
Types of Persuasive Speeches
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
-Capture the Audience's Attention
-Identify Problems or Unfulfilled Needs
-Propose a Solution (or plan) That Satisfies the Problem(s) (or need)
-Help the Audience Visualize What Satisfaction Will Mean for Them
-Give Your Audience an Action Plan
The study of body movements, including posture, gestures, and facial expressions
nonverbal movements that substitute for words and verbalizations, a part of Kinesics
movements that either accompany or reinforce the meaning of a verbal code, a part of Kinesics
nonverbal movements that reveal emotion,a part of Kinesics
refer to movements that communicators engage in, sometimes unconsciously, to relieve stress and anxiety. For example, tap their fingers on the podium or hold a pen and click it open and closed, a part of Kinesics
physical closeness, in relation to other information, part of the 2nd stage of perception
the ways in which humans use and manage the space around them as a way of shaping meaning
How we establish and manage space as belonging uniquely to us
"bubble" that we create around ourselves and claim as our own.
extends up to 18 inches away from you
space that begins 18 inches away from you and extends up to 4 feet.
4-12 ft professional and workplace setting
Greater then 12 ft Public speaking
the ways in which communicators use time and the messages they communicate as a result of how they manage their time.
Use of touch in communication, highly intimate. May be welcome or unwelcome
includes vocal cues such as:
•Pitch, or the highness or lowness of a person's voice
•Rate, or how fast or slow a person speaks
•Disfluencies, such as the use of pauses and nonwords (e.g., "ahhh" and "ummm"), and pronunciation (whether a speaker says a word correctly)
•Enunciation, or the clarity with which a speaker pronounces and says a word
the use of pauses and nonwords (e.g., "ahhh" and "ummm"), and pronunciation (whether a speaker says a word correctly)
the clarity with which a speaker pronounces and says a word
ornaments and adornments the display on or around their physical person, jewelry, hairstyle
consciously aware of non-verbal behaviors, influence others and therefore monitor these behaviors, eye contact
a verbal and nonverbal transaction that takes place between two interdependent individuals within a relationship, which varies in its degree of personal-ness and can be conducted in a variety of contexts or using a variety of media
those that involve two people, although many principles of interpersonal communication extend to small, intimate groups, such as families.
refers to two people being mutually dependent on one another. That is, in interpersonal relationships, the behaviors of one person affect the other.
our need to feel accepted by and involved with others
concerned with the extent to which relationships help us feel competent and confident as individuals, and, by extension, influential over others
cognitive and emotional expression of strong caring for something or someone, feeling of approval
the earliest period of a new relationship. small talk and low-risk exchanges, pay careful attention to self-presentation and impression management, restricting their conversations to safe and positive topics.
competent communication, pay close attention to self-presentation and impression, restricting conversation to safe and positive topics.
straight forward and unmasked in their intent
friends feel toward one another based on shared enjoyment of activities and interests
the desire to work together or form professional connections based on the perception that the individual is competent or skilled.
a way to make contact with the target individual.
messages are particularly common in attempts to initiate dating relationships
communicators exchange and acquire information that supports a deepening relationship
The first quadrant= "open area"-things that you know about yourself and that others know about you too
The second quadrant= "blind area" things we may not be aware of but that can be seen by others
The third quadrant= "hidden/facade area" things that we know about ourselves but keep hidden from others
The fourth quadrant= "unknown" that which is unknown to both you and others
the obstacles to listening effectively that stem from features of the situation, including the message itself
a number of arguments and related evidence- might be difficult to follow and comprehend.
the state of being exposed to more messages than we can cognitively process at any given time
noisy distractions, such as TVs, ringtones and other phone alerts, side talking in meetings or classes, traffic, and barking dogs and loud equipment
Personal Barriers to Competent Listening
Multitasking and Preoccupation
Bias and Judgment
Preoccupation or Psychological Noise
when we become so focused on a single task, thought, or message that we do not listen effectively to anything else
Bias and Judgment
difficulty separating your feelings about the communicator, and the categories he or she might represent for you, from the message itself-having knowledge that someone is of a particular religion, is male or female, may predispose you to certain attitudes toward that individual's message
also known as pseudolistening, involves receiving messages mindlessly, without exerting sufficient effort or maintaining concern for what is being said
the internal dialogue we have throughout our lives. This inner voice is a sort of running commentary on what we do and experience.
the behaviors that partners in interpersonal relationships use to keep their relationships stable, satisfying, and in good repair
exists between two competing and contradictory, but related, forces
using devices and software to detect the key strokes that an individual types
involves taking another's message and restating it in your own words.
reveals that even a mental rehearsal of a msg in anticipation of a diff conversation can improve outcome.
the ability to perceive anothers messages through his or her worldview and experiences.
-assessing the other communicator, the context, and the message
-producing a reasoned conclusion about the ideas being shared
required in order to engage in critical thinking; assessing the accuracy, relevance, viability, meaningfulness, and usefulness of a message
the sharing of information, among communicators, using language
a collection of words that are symbolic because they have arbitrary meanings governed by a system of rules
refers to a communicator's competence, trustworthiness, and degree of perceived caring toward other communicators relative to the claims he or she is making
a team's overwhelming motivation to agree and reach consensus, and a failure to critically evaluate the task or alternative plans and solutions.
situations in which one member of a team exerts little or no effort to the task.
Goal Orientation and Purpose
team members' shared enthusiasm and motivation for reaching that goal
formal and informal checks and balances to ensure that all parts of the team are functioning effectively in working toward the desired quality outcome
Rules, Roles and Sanctions
clear, mutually agreed upon rules and expectations that guide their interactions with one another as well as their task performance
teams distinguished from groups by the _______________________ that characterizes their work.
constant connection to others through smartphones, computers, email, social media can result in communication overload also known as ___________________.
is communication between and among people and groups across national, ethnic, and other cultural boundaries.
the environment and situation in which communication occurs
Linear Model of Communication
Phase 1: Deciding on the message
Phase 2: Encoding the message.
Phase 3: Transmitting the message
Phase 4: Perceiving the message
Phase 5: Decoding and assigning meaning to the message.
Transactional Model of Communication
The addition of feedback, along with consideration of the factors that make accurate decoding of messages difficult, transforms the linear model into the_______________________.
comprised of 3 skill sets;
Listening, public speaking, small talk self-disclosure, conflict management, empathy persuasion intercultural communication and tech abilities.
Many factors can influence our level of motivation to communicate, including our perception of the importance of the issue, our overall attitudes about the situation, our feelings of similarity to our interaction partners or audience, social anxieties, and our expectations or predictions about the values and benefits of communicating. Our mood, energy level, and state of self-confidence all play a role too.
foreground or point of emphasis to your attention, part of the 2nd stage of perception
represents the background of the particular stimuli that capture your focused attention, part of the 2nd stage of perception
mental tool for organizing stimuli. our ability to fill in missing info to complete perception, part of the 2nd stage of perception
the degree to which something shares attributes with other stimuli; final tool for organizing stimuli part of the 2nd stage of perception
3rd stage in perception process, our ___________________relies on both our internal states and characteristics of the stimuli
refers to the way you define yourself
the degree to which you approve of, value, and like the concept that you have of yourself.
involves assuming a standard, generalized profile of an individual, because he or she belongs to a group.
When we are successful, we attribute our successes to some internal positive qualities-intelligence, charm, knowledge of current events or popular culture, persuasiveness, or competent communication, but when we fail, we blame the situation
occurs outside of the constraints of time and place. Email is often asynchronous because we use it to send messages and wait for responses when receivers are not at their communication devices or are simply not available
involves instant replies and back-and-forth, real-time interaction. For example, texting and instant messaging allow for synchronous communication. As long as two people are available to read and respond to messages immediately, the communication remains synchronous.
involves authority or ability to influence other people to do things they may lack motivation to do on their own; is the mind of beholder, it's a matter of perception
perceived when team members believe that an individual member has the potential for either providing a positive reward or removing something negative in exchange for their participation and cooperation
refers to team members' perceptions that a particular member has the ability to punish them for not cooperating or complying as participants with his or her requests.
assigned to people because of their job, position, or assignment; such as manager, chairperson, supervisor, elected official, teacher, and so forth
a person's ability to motivate and influence others because he or she is well liked, respected, and admired.
an individual's ability to acquire and share valuable information
Assess the task
Evaluate your strengths and weaknesses
Plan an approach
Apply strategies and monitor your performance
Reflect and adjust if needed
the exchange of verbal and nonverbal messages with the intent of stimulating particular meanings in the minds of others
1st stage in the perception process involves:
2nd stage in the perception process: a communicator's efforts to group information into meaningful units to make further sense out of the information
we will attend to information that reinforces existing beliefs and disregard information that is at odds with our current position.
once we are engaged in a particular interaction, we focus on certain information and ignore other information
apply our own unique experiences to the message; our inclination to see, hear, and believe what we want to see, hear, and believe.
we remember things that we agree with rather than things that are contrary to our beliefs.
Factors that Influence Perception
Past Experiences: Family, Education, Relationships
Current Internal States
Stages of Developing a Successful Team
The team explores and identifies its primary objective(s), characterized by socially cautious interaction and polite communication, but not too much work.
team members may openly disagree with one another about who is going to do what, the definition of the team's goals, and what processes will work accomplishing those goals; People posture for status
the team establishes further ground rules and norms for behavior to help in accomplishing its objectives-individual members resolve their conflicts and assume their roles in functional, appropriate ways and the team moves in a functional way toward the next stage of performance.
The team is flexible: Roles and responsibilities may change in order to meet deadlines, members do the work necessary to accomplish the team's objectives.The team is cohesive, and its members feel a sense of identity along with their membership. Morale and commitment are high as the team begins to see results.
a model that illustrates how some leaders inspire, energize, engage, and motivate teammates to excel within the team context in committed, passionate ways
Transformational Leader Behaviors
•Modeling good behavior