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Unit 3, Chapter 12: Politics of the Roaring Twenties

Notecards for Chapter 12, Unit 3 American History
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Terms in this set (...)

Nativism
Prejudice against foreign-born people. It swept the nation after WWI.
Isolationism
A former US foreign policy. Pulling away from involvement in world affairs.
Communism
Economic and political system based on single-party gov. ruled by dictator. Aimed to equalize wealth and power. Would put end to private property, gov. would control business.
Red Scare
A wave of Communist fever that formed in the US. US Attorney General Palmer hunted down suspected communists and trampled civil rights. Did not find any evidence at all.
Anarchists
People who opposed any form of government
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
arrested and charged with robbery and murder. Both provided alibis and asserted their innocence. Jury still found them guilty and sentenced to death.
Strong nativist feelings
US had fewer unskilled jobs available, and some people involved with labor disputes are immigrants
Klan membership increase
KKK membership reached 4.5 millions. KKK used anti-communism to harass any group not like them. Used Red Scare and anti-immigrant feelings to recruit members.
Quota system
established max number of immigrants who could enter US from each country. Goal to cut down immigration.
1919 Boston Police Strike
Boston police not given a raise since beg. of WWI. Police began strike, and governor called national guard. new policeman hired instead and governor praised for saving Boston from communism and anarchy.
1919 Steel Mill Strike
300,000 workers walked off jobs. US Steel hired strikebreakers and used force. workers were beaten by fed. troops, militia, and police. Company used propaganda and linked strikers to Communism. Report on harsh working conditions led company to agree to 8 hrs. day.
1919 Coal Miners' Strike
John L. Lewis led strike. General Palmer obtain court order, and Lewis declare it over. He quietly gave word for it to continue and mines stayed close for another month. Miners receive 27% raise after Wilson appoint arbitrator.
John L. Lewis
Leader of the United Mine Workers of America. Led 1919 Coal Miners' Strike.
Warren G. Harding
Became 29th Pres. in 1921. Favored limited role for gov. in business and social reform. He was plagued with his cabinet committing graft and taking bribes. Died of heart attack on August 2, 1923.
Normalcy
Amer. public wanted return to normal, before the Progressive Era and WWI.
Charles Evans Hughes
Secretary of State. Urged five naval powers to scrap many of their warships and agree to not build anymore warships for 10 yrs.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Renounced war as national policy. 15 countries signed, but useless, since it provided no means of enforcement.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff
Raised taxes on some imports up to 60%, the highest ever. Protected US business, but made impossible for GB and France to repay US for war debt.
Dawes Plan
Banker Charles Dawes sent to negotiate after Germany defaulted on payment to GB and France due to inflation. Arranged for US to be repaid with its own money by loaning 2.5 to Germany.
Andrew Mellon
One of nation's wealthiest men. Became Secretary of Treasury and drastically cut taxes and reduced national debt.
Charles R. Forbes
Head of Veterans Bureau, caught illegally selling gov. & hospital supplies to private companies.
Teapot Dome Scandal
Secretary of Interior got oil reserves transferred to Interior Dept. and leased land to private oil companies when the land was set aside for US Navy.
Albert B. Fall
US Secretary of the Interior who participated in the Teapot Dome scandal
Model T
A popular model of Ford's car manufacturer. Only came in black.
Calvin Coolidge
Pres. who favored gov policies to keep taxes down and business profit up. Goal to keep gov. interference in business a minimum. Used hands off policy.
Herbert Hoover
Pres who succeeded Coolidge. Had same policy of hands off as Coolidge.
Urban sprawl
The unplanned, uncontrolled, spread of cities in all directions
Will Rogers
Famous for the quote to Ford: It will take a hundred years to tell whether you helped or hurt us, but you certainly didn't leave us where you found us.
Amelia Earhart
Famous pilot who flew transatlantic flights to help promote cargo & commercial airlines
Electrical Conveniences
Made lives of housewives easier, freed them for community and leisure activities, and coincided with growing trend of women working outside the home.
Modern Advertising
Brand names became familiar, psychologists were hired to study how to appeal to people's desire, and promoted business
Installment plan
Enabled people to buy goods over an extended period without having to put down much money at purchase time.