Chapter 14 vital signs

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Vital Signs
defined as various determinations that provide information about the basic body conditions of the patient.
Blood pressure
a measurement of the pressure that the blood exerts on the walls of the arteries during the various stages of heart activity
Sphygmomanometer
blood pressure is read on this instrument
Systolic
pressure occurs in the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle of the heart is contracting and pushing blood into the arteries
Diastolic
pressure is the constant pressure in the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle of the heart is at rest, or between contractions
Pulse pressure
the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
Hypertension
high blood pressure, is indicated when pressures are greater than 140 mm Hg systolic and 90 mm Hg diastolic
Hypotension
low blood pressure, is indicated when pressures are less than 100 mm Hg systolic and 60 mm Hg diastolic.
Temperature
a measurement of the balance between heat lost and heat produced by the body.
Pulse
the pressure of the blood felt against the wall of an artery as the heart contracts and relaxes, or beats.
Rate
refers to the number of beats per minute
Rhythm
refers to regularity
Volume
refers to strength
Respiration
reflect the breathing rate of the patient
Blood Pressure
the force exerted by the blood against the arterial walls when the heart contracts or relaxes
Apical Pulse
a vital sign, pulse taken with a stethoscope and near the apex of the heart
Homeostasis
constant state of fluid balance
Oral
temperatures taken in the mouth
Rectal
temperatures taken in the rectum
Axillary
temperature taken in the armpit, under the upper arm
Aural
temperature taken with a special thermometer that is placed in the ear or auditory canal
Hypothermia
a low body temperature, below 95F
Fever
elevated body temperature usually above 101F
Pyrexia
another term for fever
Hyperthermia
occurs when the body temperature exceeds 104F
Clinical thermometers
used to record temperatures, Instruments used to measure body temperature
Electronic thermometers
used in many facilities
Tympanic thermometers
specialized electronic thermometers that record the aural temperature in the ear
Bradycardia
a pulse rate under 60 beats per minute
Tachycardia
a pulse rate over 100 beats per minute
Arrhythmia
an irregular or abnormal rhythm, usually caused by a defect in the electrical conduction pattern of the heart
Respiration
the process of taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide from the lungs and respiratory tract
Character
refers to the depth and quality of respirations
Dyspnea
difficult or labored breathing
Apnea
absence of respirations, usually temporary
Tachypnea
respiratory rate above 25 respirations per minute
Bradypnea
slow respiratory rate, usually below 10 respirations per minute
Orthopnea
severe dyspnea in which breathing is very difficult in any position other than sitting erect or standing
Cheyne-Stokes
respirations periods of dyspnea followed by periods of apnea; frequently noted in the dying patient
Rales
bubbling or noisy sounds caused by fluids or mucus in the air passages
Wheezing
difficult breathing with a high pitched whistling or sighing sound during expiration; caused by a narrowing of bronchioles and/or an obstruction or mucus accumulation in the bronchi
Cyanosis
a dusky, bluish discoloration of the skin, lips, and/or nail beds as a result of decreased oxygen and increased carbon dioxide in the bloodstream
Stethoscope
an instrument used to take pulse
Pulse deficit
The difference between the rate of a radial and an apical pulse
Antecubital
of or relating to the region of the arm in front of the elbow
Assess
to analyze and determine the nature, value, or importance of
Auscultate
To examine, by listening (usually with the aid of a stethoscope), to sounds produced by the movement of gases or liquids within the body, as a means of diagnosis
Brachial
of or relating to an arm
Intercostal space
space between the ribs
Meniscus
the curve at a liquid's surface by which you measure the volume of the liquid
Palpate
medical term meaning to examine with the hands
Popliteal
of or relating to the area behind the knee joint
Stethoscope
a medical instrument for listening to the sounds generated inside the body
T
Temperature
P
Pulse
VS
Vital Signs
C
Celsius
F
Farenheight
R
Respirations
BP
Blood pressure
98.6
Normal temp for adults
Febrile
temp < 100.4
Carotid
of or relating to either of the two major arteries supplying blood to the head and neck
Temporal
of or relating to the temples (the sides of the skull behind the orbit)
Femoral
pertaining to the femur. the femoral vein and artery are located in the groin
Dorsalis Pedis
The major artery that supplies the foot is called the,
Posterior Tibialis
just behind the medial malleoulus or ankle toward the midline of the body
Newborn
120-160
1month - 1 year
80-140
1-6years
80-120
6yrs to adolescence
75-110
adulthood
72-80
late adulthood
60-80
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