Upgrade to remove ads
gonadal function chapter 21
Terms in this set (37)
function of testes
1. Production of sperm
2. Production of reproductive steroid hormones- testosterone
function of testosterone
1. differentiation of primordial gonads
2. with sperm production
3. secondary sexual characteristics
testosterone binds what in blood
1. bound with albumin,
2. sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)
*Total testosterone is determined by [SHBG]
*Total testosterone is determined by
[SHBG]- bound with testosterone
the testes is composed of
1. seminiferous tubules
process of maturation From spermatogonia to mature sperm cells
production of testosterone is controlled by
1. FSH -follicle- spermatogenesis
2. LH- corpus leuteum, testosterone
Hypothalamus generates GnRH in ___ manner.
____ is principal androgen hormone in blood.
___ concentration fluctuates in a circadian fashion due so the pulsatile release of ___
___&___ negatively feedback on hypothalamus & pituitary gland.
Physiologic actions of testosterone:
Effect on ____
Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism disorders:
___ testosterone production
Low testosterone; high FSH & LH
Testicular feminization syndrome = androgen resistance.
____testosterone; high FSH & LH.
___ testosterone production
Initially female phenotype but eventually male phenotype.
Still able to convert testosterone to DHT
Testicular injury & infection (e.g., mumps, radiation, chemo)
Azoospermia, but ___ testosterone production
Normal testosterone; high FSH & LH
absence of sperm in the semen
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism disorders:
Associated with ___&___.
Hormone levels gradually __ after 30
Total levels remain normal
Free (unbound) levels decrease because ___ increases.
___, trauma, injury, autoimmunity, metastasis
1. anosmia, hyposmia
2. decline, SHBG
Diagnosis of Hypogonadism
1. *Timing of sample (circadian rhythm).
2. Multiple estimation of free & bound levels done on *different days.
3. Primary hypogonadism: FSH and/or LH levels elevated (no negative feedback)
4. Secondary hypogonadism: FSH and/or LH levels normal or low.
5. Older people often have secondary or *tertiary dysfunction.
6. Decrease in hypothalamic function, thus decreased GnRH.
Testosterone Replacement Therapy
1. Parenteral testosterone. im injection
2. Transdermal testosterone therapy- a patch
3. Testosterone gel- gel applied to skin
4. Buccal testosterone- tablet in mouth
complications of Testosterone Replacement Therapy
polycythemia, -hi hemoglobin levels
Monitoring Testosterone Replacement Therapy includes
1. Prostate-specific antigen *(PSA), blood counts, & lipid levels should be checked 3-6 months after initiation & yearly thereafter.
2. Routine clinical evaluation for leg edema, sleep apnea, & *prostate enlargement.
3. May reduce sperm count by reducing intratesticular [testosterone] that is manifold higher than serum concentrations.
4. *if PSA is evelvated do biopsy
5. Active prostate cancer is contraindication to testosterone replacement.
Active prostate cancer is ___ to testosterone replacement therapy
1. Gamete (ovum) production
2. Steroid hormone production
Hormones from hypothalamus, pituitary, & ovaries prepare uterus for implantation of embryo.
In absence of implantation, uterine lining is shed (menses).
development of female genitalia and breast development
induces secretory activity of endometrial glands
prepare the endometrium of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized ovum and the mammary glands for milk secretion.
Androgens in excess, lead to
hirsutism, loss of female characteristics, development of male secondary sexual features
Inhibins A & B
inhibit FSH production
enhances FSH secretion & induces steroidogenesis.
Contain 2-4 million primordial ___, present at birth
-All but 1 recruited follicles in a cycle atrophy.,
-The first phase of the ovarian cycle, during which a follicle (an oocyte and its surroudning cells) enlarges and matures. This phase is under the control of
FSH (fsh surge) --
The follicle secretes estrogen during this time period.
Contains maturing ovum.
-A large, mature, ovarian follicel with a well-developed antrum and a secondary oocyte. Ovulation of the oocyte occurs from this type of follicle.
Graafian follicle releases ovum in response to LH.
, LH (luteinizing hormome) causes follicle to develop into corpus luteum (secretes estrogen and progesterone); progesterone causes glands in endometrium to mature and become prepared for implantation of an embryo; the estrogen and progesterone are essential in maintaining the endometrium
Graafian follicle develops into corpus luteum.
A natural event that results in elevation of
FSH & LH and
drop in estrogen.
A physiological "ovarian failure" in women 45-55 y.o. (U.S.).
absence of menses
Absence of menstruation,
Absence of menstrual flow
infrequent or irregular menstrual bleeding
Abnormally light or infrequent menstruation
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism Deficiency of FSH & LH :
is due to
Anorexia nervosa, intense exercise, pituitary tumors; can cause (secondary) amenorrhea
-Can cause pathogenic bone loss
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
PANCREATIC FUNCTION AND GI FUNCTION (Bishop)
Clinical Chemistry Chapter 11: Amino Acids and Pro…
Chapter 8: Immunochemical Techniques
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 22: Gonadal Function
Reproductive Diseases and Disorders
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Ch. 16 Innate Immunity
Hematology L3 (1/2)
Microbiology L1 (1/2)
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
AP Lab exam 4 Pt. 2
Eliopoulos - Gerontological Nursing 8th Ed - Rehab…