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3.2: Chromosomes

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Describe the structure and function of nucleoid DNA.​

Understanding: Prokaryotes have one chromosome consisting of a circular DNA molecule.
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Terms in this set (41)
Prokaryotic DNA
-One chromosome
-Plasmids may be present
-No intron sequences
-Found in nucleoid region
-One origin of DNA replication

Eukaryotic DNA
-Multiple chromosomes
-Associated with histones
-No plasmids
-Intron sequences present
-Contained in membrane bound nucleus
-Multiple origins of DNA replication
In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells:

-The DNA is double helix made of two anti-parallel strands of nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs.

-The replication of DNA is semi-conservative and depends on complementary base pairing.

-DNA is the genetic code for creating proteins through transcription and translation.
Plasmids are extra pieces of DNA found only in prokaryotic cells. Like nucleoid DNA, plasmid DNA is circular and naked however plasmids are much smaller than the main nucleoid DNA and plasmids replicate independently of the nucleoid DNA. Plasmids are not found in all prokaryotic cells, can be shared between bacteria and often contain genes for antibiotic resistance.