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American Government Ch. 4&5

STUDY
PLAY
Federalism
a system of government in which a written constitution divides the powers of government on a territorial basis between central and several smaller governments
Division of Powers
power split between national government and the states
Delegated Powers
powers expressed, implied, or inherent granted to the national government by the constitution
Expressed Powers
delegated powers of the national government that are spelled out in the constitution
Implied Powers
delegated powers not expressly stated in the constitution but reasonably suggested
Inherent Powers
powers the constitution is presumed to have delegated to the national government because it's the government of a sovereign state within the world community
Reserved Powers
powers that the constitution does not, at the same time, deny to the states
Exclusive Powers
powers can be exercised by the national government alone
Exclusive Powers
powers can be exercised by the national government alone
Concurrent Powers
powers that both the national government and the states posess and exercise
Enabling Act
an act directing the people of the territory to frame a proposed state constitution
Acts of Admission
an act creating the new state
Grants-In-Aid Program
grants of federal money or other resources to the states and/or their cities, countries, and other local units
Revenue Sharing
form of federal monetary aid under which congress gave a share of federal tax revenue, with virtually no restrictions, to the states, cities, counties, and townships
Categorical Grant
one type of federal grants-in-aid; made for some specific closely defined, purpose
Block Grant
one type of federal grants-in-aid for some particular but broadly defined area of public policy
Project Grant
one type of federal grants-in-aid; made for specific projects to states, localities, and private agences who apply for them
Interstate Compacts
agreements among themselves and with foreign states
Full Faith and Credit Clause
constitution's requirement that each State accept the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state
Extradition
the legal process by which a fugitive from justice in one state is returned to that state
Privileges and Immunities Clause
no state can draw unreasonable distinctions between its own residents and those persons who happen to live in other states
Political Party
a group of persons who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office
Major Parties
republican and democratic parties
Partisanship
the strong support of their party and its policy stands
Party in Power
the party that controls the executive branch of government
Minor Party
one of the many political parties without wide voter support
Two-Party System
a political system dominated by two major parties
Single-Member District
electoral district from which one person is chosen by the voters for each elected office
Plurality
the largest number of votes cast for the office
Bipartisan
supported by the two parties
Pluralistic Society
one consisting of several distinct cultures and groups
Concensus
a general agreement among various groups
Multiparty
a system in which several major and many lesser parties exist, seriously compete for, and actually win, public offices
Coalition
a temporary alliance of several groups who come together to form a working majority and so to control a government
One-Party System
a political system in which only one party exists
Incumbent
current officeholder
Factions
conflicting groups
Electorate
the people eligible to vote
Sectionalism
a narrow-minded concern for, or devotion to, the interests of one section of a country
Ideological Parties
parties based on a particular set of beliefs, a comprehensive view of social, economic, and political matters
Single Issue Parties
parties that concentrate on only one public policy matter
Economic Protest Parties
parties rooted in poor economic times, lacking a clear ideological base, dissatisfied with current conditions and demanding better times
Splinter Parties
parties that have split away from one of the major parties
Ward
a unit into which cities are often divided for the election of city council members
Precinct
the smallest unit of election administration
Split-Ticket Voting
voting for candidates of different parties for different offices at the same elections
1944
Franklin Roosevelt (D)
1945
Harry S. Truman (D)
1952
Dwight Eisenhower (R)
1960
John F. Kennedy (D)
1963
Lyndon B. Johnson (D)
1968
Richard Nixon (R)
1972
Gerald Ford (R)
1976
Jimmy Carter (D)
1980
Ronald Reagan (R)
1988
George Bush Sr. (R)
1992
Bill Clinton (D)
2000
George W. Bush (R)
2008
Barack Obama (D)