Biology Photosynthesis Test
The _______ reactions occur in the thylakoid membranes.
energy carrier cells use to transport high-energy electrons
cluster of pigments and proteins that absorbs light
a saclike photosynthetic membrane found in chloroplasts
energy carrier made as a result of photosystem
process of using the sun's energy to make food
man who worked out the light-independent reactions
liquid part of the inside of a chloroplast
chemical that absorbs light for photosynthesis
organism that makes its own food
carbon dioxide is used to make sugars in _________ reactions.
the light-indendent reactions are also called the _____ ____.
___ ___ spins to provide the energy for adding a phosphate group to ADP.
electron ____ _____ move high-energy electrons between photosystems.
an animal that obtains food by eating other organisms is called a ______.
_____ _________ is a chemical compound cells use to store and release energy.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
An ATP molecule consists of _____, _____ _____, and ____ _____ ______.
Adenine, sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups
Cells store energy by adding a ____ _____ to adenosine diphosphate (ADP).
Cells release energy from ATP molecules by _______ a ______ ______.
subtracting, phosphate group
Energy provided by ATP is used in ____ _____, _____ ______, ___ ______.
active transport, contract muscles, make proteins
Cells contain only a _____ amount at ATP at any one time. They _____ it from ADP as they need it, using _____ stored in food.
small, regenerate, energy
The energy to make ____ from ____ comes from food.
____ get food by consuming other organisms.
______ use the energy in sunlight to make their own food.
________ is the process that uses light energy to produce food molecules
______ is the ability to do work
The main chemical compound cells use for energy is _____ ________
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
_______ is a 5-carbon sugar molecule that is part of an ATP molecule
The ____ _____ of ATP are key to its ability to store and supply energy
ATP releases energy when it _____ bonds between its phosphate groups
Most cells only store ATP for _ ___ ______ of activity
a few seconds
What are two ways in which cells use the energy temporarily stored in ATP?
carry out active transport, synthesis of proteins and responses to chemical signals at the cell surface
Energy is needed to add a third phosphate group to ADP to make ATP. What is a cell's source of this energy?
Foods like glucose
All heterotrophs must ___ ____ to get energy.
_____ do not need to eat food because they make food.
The energy in food originally came from ____
The term photosynthesis means "____ ____ with light" in Greek.
The energy of sunlight is stored in the chemical bonds of _______.
In eukaryotes, photosynthesis occurs in organelles called ______.
Chloroplasts house ____ _____ _____.
____ is a form of energy.
____ is a mixture of all the different colors of visible light.
Light-absorbing molecules called _____ capture the sun's energy
______ is the principal pigment in photosynthetic organisms.
Chlorophyll absorbs ____ _____ and ___ light but reflects ____ light.
blue violet, red, green
Chloroplasts have a complex ____ structure
____: saclike photosynthetic membranes that contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are arranged in stacks called ____
_____: the fluid portion outside of the thylakoids
The energy in light raises some of the electrons in chlorophyll to _____ energy levels
These ____ ___ _____ are used in photosynthesis
Electron carriers are used to transport the _____ from ____ to ___ _____ during photosynthesis
electrons, chlorophyll, other molecules
_____ is a compound that can accept and hold _ high-energy electrons and __ hydrogen ion.
NADP+, 2, 1
This process converts _____ into ______.
The light-dependent reactions require ____, ____ _____ _____, and ____ to form _____, ____, and ____.
light, light-absorbing pigments, water, NADPH, ATP, oxygen
The light-indepdent reactions do not use light energy. They use ___ _____ from the atmosphere, _____ and _____ to make ____ ____ _____.
carbon dioxide, NADPH, ATP, energy-rich carbon compounds
The _____ of light determines its color
Chemicals that absorb light are called _____
Chlorophyll makes plants look green because it ____ green light
Chlorplasts contain an abundance of saclike photosynthetic membranes called ______
The _____ is the fluid portion of the chloroplast located outside the thylakoids
The visible light absorbed by chlorophyll ______ the energy level of the chlorophyll's electrons
Where do the high-energy electrons carried by NADPH come from?
By light absorption
What are the reactant of the photosynthesis reaction?
carbon dioxide and water
What are the products of the light-dependent reactions?
oxygen and ATP
Where do the light-indendent reactions occur?
______ are clusters of proteins and chlorophyll in thylakoid membranes
High-energy electrons form when pigments in _____ ____ absorb light
The electrons pass through ____ _____ ____, a series of electron carrier proteins.
electron transport chains
The movement of electrons through an ____ ____ ____ causes a thylakoid to fill up with ____ ___ and generates ____ and ____
electron transport chain, hydrogen ions, ATP, NADPH
____ _____ is a membrane protein through which excess hydrogen ions escape a thylakoid in a process that makes ATP
____ ____ _____ molecules from the atmosphere enter the Calvin cycle and combine with _____ ____ already present. They produce ____ ______ _____.
six carbon dioxide, 5-carbon compounds, twelve 3-carbon molecules
____ ________ molecules are removed from the cycle. They are used by the plant to build ____, _____, ___ _____, and other compounds
two 3-carbon, sugars, lipids, amino acids
The remaining ___ ______ _____ are converted back to ______ molecules and begin a new cycle
ten 3-carbon molecules, 5-carbon molecules
_____, _____ ______, and ____ __ ______ affect photosynthesis
Temperature, light intensity, availability of water
___ and ____ plants have a modified type of photosynthesis that enables that plants to conserve water in dry climates
Photosystems are clusters of chlorophyll and _____
The light-depdent reactions begin when _____ __ absorbs light
Electrons from ____ molecules replace the one lost by photosystem II
_____ is the product of photosystem I
ATP and NADPH are two types of ____ carriers
How does ATP syntheses produce ATP?
As it rotates, ATP synthase binds ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
When sunlight excites electrons in chlorophyll, how do the electrons change?
It increases the electrons energy level
Where do the light-dependent reactions take place?
Thylakoids of chloroplasts
What does the Calvin cycle use to produce high-energy sugars?
ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions
Why are the reactions of the Calvin cycle called light-independent reactions?
They use energy from the sun to produce ATP, NADPH, and oxygen
What makes the Calvin cycle a cycle?
It's a constant movement of things going in and out and it spins
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O = C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Where do light dependent reactions take place?
In the thylakoids
What are the reactants of light dependent reactions?
What are the ending products of light dependent reactions?
O2, NADPH, ATP
Where do light independent reactions take place?
Outside the thylakoids in the stroma
What are the reactants of light independent reactions?
What are the ending products of light independent reactions?
sugars, ADP, NADP+
What happens to the energy stored in the molecule?
Bonds are broken to release energy
Why do leaves appear green?
The wavelength of light is reflected and appears green
Another name for the light independent reaction is the ____ ____
What is a chlorophyll's job
It is a pigment, to absorb light energy
What is the job of NADP+
Carry high energy electrons
Where does the hydrogen in C6H12O6 come from?
List 3 factors that affect photosynthesis
Light, temperature, water
The amount of energy stored in a molecule of ATP compared to the amount stored in a molecule of glucose is ___ ____ ____
90 times less
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