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Unit 4 American History I

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American System
The program began with a strong banking system,
advocated a protective tariff behind which eastern manufacturing would flourish,
and also included a network of roads and canals, especially in the burgeoning Ohio Valley, to be funded by the tariffs, and through which would flow foodstuffs and raw materials from the South and West to the North and East.
Tariff of 1816
first in U.S. history designed for protection, which put a 20-25% tariff on dutiable imports.
Panic of 1819
A major cause had been overspeculation in land prices, where the Bank of the United States fell heavily into debt.

The West was especially hard hit, and the Bank of the U.S. was soon viewed with anger.

There was also attention against the debtors, where, in a few overplayed cases, mothers owing a few dollars were torn away from their infants by the debtors.
Corrupt Bargain, 1824
Deal between Henry Clay and John Qunicy Adams to give the 1824 presidency to Adams over Andrew Jackson, despite Jackson winning the popular vote and more electoral college votes. This gave rise to formation of new Democratic Party led by Jackson.
Jacksonian Democracy
belief in limited government in terms of spending and involvement in local matters, favored strong executive power, rejected states' rights to nullify and secede, balanced budget, paying off national debt, rotation of office/spoils system, destroying the national bank, driving Native Americans off desired lands, working for the common man
Causes of rise of Jacksonian Democracy
anger over 1824 corrupt bargain, expansion of voting among white males, bad economy, anger in west towards national bank,
Jacksonian Revolution of 1828
expansion of voting by lowering property requirements, Called the New Democracy, it was based on universal manhood suffrage,

Politicians now had to bend to appease and appeal to the masses, and the popular ones were the ones who claimed to be born in log cabins and had humble backgrounds;

rise of modern political party in Democratic Party and Whig Party;

Jacksons win showed how voting rights were helping the masses ascend the social-economic ladder. Hard work , not pedigree will bring success.
War on the Bank
Jackson vetoed renewal of charter for national bank, defunded the national bank through distributing funds to pet/wildcat banks

Jackson hates the bank because:
The Bank lent money to members of Congress
Jackson also felt that the Bank was partial to wealthy clients and hurt the average person with its policies.
Bank is not accountable to the people and held too much power over economy.
It is unconstitutional (strict constructivism).
BUS is hated in West for foreclosing on farmers.

The veto amplified the power of the president by ignoring the Supreme Court and aligned the West against the East.
Specie Circular
Jackson issued this , calling for all public lands to be purchased with gold or silver.
Spoils System
rewarding supporters with good positions in office.
Jackson believed that experience counted, but that young blood and sharp eyes counted more, and thus, he went to work on overhauling positions and erasing the old.
He called this "rotation in office
Tariff of 1828/Tariff of Abominations
Proposed to drive up tariff rates to 45% ; South hates this (see slide image to right); If the federal government could intervene and deny states' rights on the tariff issue, what was stopping them from doing this with slavery?
"The South Carolina Exposition"
Written by John C. Calhoun boldly denouncing the recent tariff as unconstitutional and calling for nullification of the tariff by all states, Thus fighting for states rights.
South Carolina Nullification Ordinance
met in the state legislature, and declared the Tariff of 1832 to be void within S.C. boundaries.
They also threatened with secession against the Union, causing a huge problem.
Force Bill
Congress passed in aftermath of nullification crisis:(aka the "Bloody Bill") that authorized the president to use the army and navy, if necessary, to collect tariffs
Indian Removal Act
Gave Andrew Jackson the power to negotiate resettlement treaties with the Native Americans and allowed the states to make laws governing their territory.

Jackson thought this act was a fabulous compromise. He believed it would allow the natives to keep their way of life and also allow Americans to get the land they wanted.

Instead the act caused death and hardship and made the natives very upset because they were forced off their land.
Seminole Wars
From 1835 to 1842, the Seminoles waged guerrilla warfare against the U.S., but were broken after their leader, Osceola, was seized; some fled deeper in Florida; others moved to Okla.
Whig Party
party opposed to Jacksonian Democrats, believed in nationalism, strong federal government, internal improvements using federal funding; Mostly more aristocratic and wealthier.
Divorce Bill
Proposed by Martin Van Buren: (separating the bank from the government and storing money in some of the vaults of the larger American cities, thus keeping the money safe but also unavailable) that advocated the independent treasury, and in 1840, it was passed.
Characteristics of German immigration
1 million poured in bet 1830s-1860s because of crop failures (economic failures) and an autocratic government
They easily assimilate and thrive in the U.S. having brought more $ than Irish and possessing better skills. Many bought land in west esp. in Wisconsin.
Votes crucial so wooed by US politicians but not as potent because they spread out vs. concentrated on eastern seaboard.
Contributed to US culture (Christmas tree, bier);
Urged public education (Kindergarten) & freedom (enemies of slavery)
Still subject of resentment from nationalists and nativists because they are a different group & brought beers to US.
Amish isolated themselves in enclaves in Pennsylvania
Characteristics of Irish immigration
Irish potato famine in mid-1840s led to death of 2 million & many flee to US
Many work in low paying grueling jobs: factories, canal drudging.
Irish resorted to living in slums,/tenements in eastern cities (New York and Boston especially).

Hated competition w/ blacks for job in cities (leads to race riots).
Labor unions often excluded immigrants: Irish formed own union with Molly Maguires
Hated by Protestants because they were Catholic and it was feared that the Powerful Church may get a foot hold in America

Reputation as crude, rowdy, uncivilized, drunks

boss politicians and political machines in big cities used Irish for their votes
Market Revolution
Subsistence economy with small factories transformed into expanded economy based on industry and commerce

occurred in 2 phases in U.S. 1790s-1860, and then post Civil War 1865.
1st phase transitions into 2nd phase (some historians use the terms 1st Ind. Rev. and 2nd Ind. Rev.)
As transition occurs, industries rise (industrialization), big corporations rise, immigration and urbanization rise.
Nativism
Nativists feared that Catholicism would build on Protestantism so formed "Order of star-spangled Banner"
Met in secrecy-"Know-Nothing" Party
Fought for restriction on immigration, naturalization & deportation of alien paupers
Wrote fiction books (Awful Disclosures) about corruption of churches
Mass violence, ex. Philadelphia 1844-burned churches, schools, people killed
Lowell Mills System
Strict supervision, paternalistic, chaperones in boarding houses, etc.. used women to work in factories
Factory System
consolidating manufacturing under one factory roof; idea brought over from England by Samuel Slater
Cotton Gin
Eli Whitney invented: separated seeds from cotton faster than human hands=increased cotton production=increased slavery
Government Friendly Policies Encourage Industrial Growth
Principle of limited liability (can't lose more than invested) stimulated economy

Laws of "free incorporation" (1848)-no need to apply for charter from legislature to start corp

Tariff laws
Elias Howe & Isaac Singer
(1846) made sewing machine (foundation of clothing industry) and the textile mills (cloth) will be the first mass industry to take off in America
former seamstresses( women) to work in factories not home now.
Charles Goodyear
vulcanized rubber discovered and used
Samuel Morse
invented telegraph
John Deere and Cyrus McCormick
invented use of mechanized farming equipment (steel plow, mechanical reaper)
Robert Fulton
invented steam engine (allows for steam ships and factories to be powered by steam rather than water)
Growth of Railroad Industry
It was faster, more reliable than canals
Trains become more standardized=safer

1st railroad in US (1828); by 1860-30,000 mi. railroad tracks in US (3/4 at north)
Erie Canal
between Great Lakes & Hudson River(1817-1825)
Annoys many New England farmers because it forces them to move for construction (some give up farming all together)
Impact is enormous on economy as it shortens expense & time of transportation & cities grew along the side (Cleveland, Detroit)
Transportation Revolution
trains, roads, and canals conjoins regions together, increasing economic interdependence
Impact of Market Revolution on Workers
The industrial revolution widens the gap bet. rich & poor (widest in cities)
Unskilled workers were "drifters" who went from town to town for jobs
(1/2 of industrial pop) -forgotten
Social mobility existed but not in proportion, rags-to-riches were rare (still more opportunity than other countries)
Standard of living did rise, wage rose too (helped diffuse potential class conflict)
Struggles of Early Labor Unions
Many workers struck but lost because employers import more workers (immigrants, sometimes referred to as strikebreakers)
Unions formed (300,000 union embers) but in 1830s but hit by Panic of 1837
Case of Commonwealth vs. Hunt in Supreme court of MA (1842)
Legalized union on peaceful & honorable protest
Impact of Market Revolution on Women
toiled in factory under bad conditions
Lowell Mills and Waltham Mills System
Strict supervision, paternalistic, chaperones in boarding houses, etc..
Opportunities rare & women mainly in nursing, domestic service, teaching
Women usually worked before marriage, after marriage they were house wives (made more decisions in family)
Cult of domesticity (shaped values of home)
Second Great Awakening Causes
revival caused by reaction to need for social reform caused by ills of industrialization and neglect from government; Reject predestination: Belief in free will & salvation through good work; pictured God as loving father, not a strict punisher as was taught during 1st Great Awakening
Humans were essentially good

Charles Grandison Finney was greatest of revival preachers

Women take leadership roles in 2nd Great Awakening and lead reform efforts
Saw role to bring family to Christ
Made up majority of new memberships
Burned Over District
Revival furthered fragmentation of religious faiths
New York w/ Puritans preaching "hellfire" known as
Second Great Awakening Effects
resulted in prison & church reform, temperance cause, women's movement, abolish slavery (larger than last), Utopias attempted

closely aligned with transcendentalists movement

Baptists and Methodists dominate: preached personal conversion, democratic churches

Widened lines between classes & region (like 1st)
Prosperous and conservative denominations in East less affected by revival
Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, tended to come from urban, more educated and prosperous families.
Methodists, Baptists come from South and West and less educated communities
Religion further split with the issue on slavery (Methodist, Baptists)
Many communities try to create local colleges to support faith but lack intellectual rigor
Mormon & Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Joseph Smith (1830) came up from the "burned -over district" in NY. Creates.

Antagonism toward group for polygamy, drilling militia, voting as a unit
Smith murdered by a mob but succeeded by Brigham Young who led followers to Utah
Horace Mann
founded public schools in Mass; saw education as great equalizer
Dorothea Dix
mental health reform, prison reform
American Temperance Society
wanted prohibition of alcohol , Lymon Beecher formed
Women's Movement
encompassed temperance, abolitionism, and a fight for suffrage
Women's Movement Leaders
Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony (Suzy Bs), Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Elizabeth Blackwell (1st female medical graduate), Margaret Fuller, Grimke sisters (anti-slavery), Amelia Bloomer (semi-short skirts); Stanton and Lydia Maria Child
Susan B. Anthony founded National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA)
Maine Law
prohibited make, sale liquor (follow by others)
created by Neal Dow (father of prohibition)
Seneca Falls Convention
1848, Declaration of Sentiments- "All Men & Women are created equal"
Demanded suffrage for women
Launched modern women's rights movement
National Identity in Science
Benjamin Silliman (1779-1864)-pioneer in chemistry, geology (taught in Yale)
Louis Agassiz (1807-1873)-served at Harvard, insisted on original research
Asa Gray (1810-1888) Harvard-Columbus of botany
John Audubon (1785-1851) painted birds
National Identity in Art
During nationalism upsurge after war of 1812 -US painters portrayed landscapes & romanticism:focus on emotion, nature, human individualism
Hudson River School: 1st distinct school of American Art
Transcendentalism philosophy in literature
National Identity in Literature
Romanticism:
Knickerbocker group in NY
Washington Irving (1783-1859)-1st American to have international acclaim (The Sketch Book)
James Fennimore Cooper (1789-1851)-1st US novelist-leatherstocking tales (Last of the Mohicans)
Focused on viability of republican experiment
William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878)-Thanatopsis (1st high quality poems in US)
Transcendentalism
literary movement started in 1830s by Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thorough; Urged US writers throw off European tradition, challenge tradition and authority
Most influential as practical philosopher (stressed self-gov, reliance, find inner truth, etc.)

Contrast Locke (knowledge from reason); truth not by observation alone but w/ inner light
Emily Dickinson
female poet with theme of nature in poems
Literary Individualists
Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)- The Scarlet Letter (psychological effect of sin)
Herman Melville (1819-1891) -Moby Dick -between good & evil told in whale captain
Planters
wealthy elites, called gentry that dominated southern politics, owners of large slave plantations
King Cotton
dominant cash crop in South beginning mid 1800s
Yeomen Farmers
small farmers who may own few slaves in South, may have voting rights
Landless whites in South
lack voting rights in many places because no property, little to no social upward mobility in south, lack of thriving middle class

sometimes these folks are referred to as white trash
Chattel Slavery
plantation slavery system in South
Paternalism on plantations
part of the apologist view towards slavery; slave masters treated slaves as family providing clothing, food, shelter, medical care, etc...
The Black Belt
deep southern states where cotton thrived
Harriet Beecher Stowe
abolitionists who wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin which criticized slavery; southerners hated this book
Slave culture
Africans also mixed Christian religion with their own native religion (responsorial preaching style, and often, they sang Christian hymns as signals and codes for news of possible freedom; many of them sang songs that emphasize bondage ("Let my people go.")
Ringshout dance became popular
Hidden messages encoded within hymns ("Follow the Drinking Gourd")
Slave resistance on plantations
slaves worked as slowly as they could without getting lashed. (Slow Downs)
They stole food and sabotaged expensive equipment.
Occasionally, they poisoned their masters' food.
American Colonization Society
founded for the purpose of transporting blacks back to Africa, and in 1822, the Republic of Liberia was founded for Blacks to live.
Radical abolitionism
reformers who favored immediate abolition; some used violence to try to accomplish this such as John Brown;
Apologists' view of slavery
The southern defense of slavery
Frederick Douglass
escaped slave and a great speaker and fought for the Black cause despite being beaten and harassed; his autobiography depicted his remarkable struggle and his origins
Underground Railroad
Harriet Tubman and others worked to free slaves and help them escape to the North
William Lloyd Garrison
published the first edition of The Liberator triggering a 30-year war of words and in a sense firing one of the first shots of the Civil War.
Helped found the American Anti-Slave Society
Moderate Abolitionism
Few northerners were willing to immediately abolish slavery, including Lincoln.
Many northerners, including Lincoln, called (Free Soilers) wanted to prevent it from spreading into the Western territories and thus increasing the political power of slave states.
1800 election
Jefferson, with the bulk of his support coming from the South and the West, won the election of 1800 by a majority of 73 electoral votes to 65, and even though Adams got more popular votes, Jefferson got New York, thanks to Aaron Burr's influence, but even though he triumphed, through a technicality,
he and Aaron Burr tied for presidency.

House of Rep. chose Jefferson as president over Aaron Burr
Panic of 1837
caused by the "wildcat banks" loans, the overspeculation, the "Bank War," and the Specie Circular.
interchangeable parts
Eli Whitney introduced method to have replacable parts (on muskets-1798) universal in manufacturing by 1850

Base model of assembly line

Samuel Colt used Int. parts to mass produce Colt Revolver
Commonwealth vs. Hunt, 1837
legalized labor unions right to protests peacefully
utopias
Oneida Community- practiced free love, birth control, eugenic selection of parents to produce superior offspring

Shakers-communistic community (led by Mother Ann Lee)-1770 (can't marry so extinct)
All of these communal societies die out eventually

Brook Farm-Mass. intellectuals committed to Transcendentalism

Robert Owen founded New Harmony (1825)
Sojourner Truth
a freed Black woman who fought for black emancipation and women's rights.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1832
Although sympathetic with Cherokee, John Marshall and Supreme Court refused to hear the case because Supreme Court lacked jurisdiction since tribe was not a foreign nation in the same sense the term is used in the Constitution. Cherokee tribe was a separate but dependent nation within the larger nation of the U.S.

*Outcome: Tribe has special status within the nation, a trust relationship, therefore the federal government protects tribal welfare; this meant Cherokee would be forced to relocate West under federal Indian Removal Act.
Worchester v. Georgia, 1832
John Marshall's Supreme Court ruled that tribes were sovereign entities with self authority. Only the federal government had ultimate authority over the tribes; Georgia couldn't regulate over Cherokee land

***Jackson didn't recognize or accept the court's decision and refused to enforce the court's ruling in Georgia. Jackson believed Georgia could have complete authority over Indian land.
Eaton Scandal
Jackson appointed a cabinet member with a rumored past of having an affair with a married woman; critics of Jackson attacked his moral judgement because of this appointment
Nicholas Biddle
president of the national bank that Jackson hated
John C. Calhoun
Jackson's Vice President and political opponent who strongly advocated for states' rights to nullify and secede; he write the SC Exposition
1837 Panic
caused by the "wildcat banks" loans, the overspeculation, the "Bank War," and the Specie Circular.
Failures of wheat crops also worsened the situation.
Harper's Weekly and Thomas Nast,
made nativists cartoons negatively depicting Irish
urbanization
growth of cities
Harriet Jacobs
speaker, reformer, escaped and freed slave
Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl
Phyllis Wheatley
1753-1784, 1st published female black female poet, freed with publication of major works: Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral
Knickerbockers
Washington Irving (1783-1859)-1st American to have international acclaim (The Legend of Sleepy Hollow)
James Fennimore Cooper (1789-1851)-Leatherstocking Tales, (Last of the Mohicans)
Focused on viability/strength of republican experiment
Charles Grandison Finney
leader of the 2nd Great Awakening
Echota Treaty
signed in 1835, ceding Cherokee land to the U.S. in exchange for compensation. The treaty had been negotiated by a Cherokee leader, Major Ridge, who claimed to represent the Cherokee Nation when, in fact, he spoke only for a small faction
Naturalization Act 1870
created a system of controls for the naturalization process and penalties for fraudulent practices. It is also noted for extending the naturalization process to "aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent." (Source: Wikipedia)
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