105 terms

Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition Review of Chapters 5-9

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The oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of what?
preformed linolenic acid
What is a feature of catabolic reactions?
involve release of energy
protein turnover
the synthesis and degradation of body proteins
Name some major sources of cholesterol.
hamburger, meat, shrimp
What is a major feature of the Mediterranean diet?
a liberal intake of olive oil
Name some diseases that are known to be linked to excessive intake of fats.
heart disease, obesity, cancer
What organ is the major site for gluconeogenesis?
liver
What type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil?
monounsaturated
edema
tissue swelling that results from water accumulating between cells
What compounds may be synthesized from cholesterol?
sex hormones, vitamin D, bile
What compound can not be synthesized from cholesterol?
glucose
Name a food with a high percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form.
corn oil
Name a food with a high percentage of its fat in saturated form.
coconut oil
What is a major cause of rancidity of lipids in foods?
exposure to heat and oxygen
Name some characteristics of hydrogenated oils.
they lower HDL and raise LDL cholesterol in the body; some of their fatty acids change shape from cis to trans; they are stored in adipose tissue; products containing them become rancid later, contributing to a longer shelf life
What is the approximate kcal content of one pound of body fat?
3500
In comparison to the composition of carbohydrates and fats, which element found in proteins makes them unique?
nitrogen
How do lipids differ?
in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of double bonds
What function does a buffer perform?
helps maintain a constant pH
What process results in the hardening of an egg when it is exposed to heat?
denaturation
In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, what does a high-density lipoprotein contain?
less lipid
A low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of what?
high-density lipoproteins
How is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level?
It enhances excretion of bile leading to increased cholesterol turnover.
If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?
Protein synthesis will be limited.
Bile is known to assist in the absorption of what?
fat only
What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid?
pepsin
oils
lipids that are liquid at room temperature
dispensable amino acid
amino acid that can be synthesized by the body
The body's need for water increases on a diet high in what?
protein
Name a good source of omega-3 fats.
salmon
What sometimes happens to the double bond configurations of oils that are partially hydrogenated?
changes one or more of its double bond configurations from cis to trans
What is a common feature of plant sterols?
inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol
What type of protein would the body make in order to heal a wound?
collagen
What does the body's amino acid pool consists of?
both essential and nonessential amino acids
What does a high risk of heart attack correlate with?
high blood levels of low-density lipoproteins
Which of the following defines a coenzyme?
an organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme
How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins?
20
A person who is starving is losing what?
glycogen, protein, and fat
fats
lipids that are solid at room temperature
Name a food that contains a low level of cholesterol per serving.
steamed corn
What does an aerobic reaction require?
oxygen
trans-fatty acids
fatty acids with hydrogens on the opposite sides of the double bonds These fats behave more like saturated fats, increasing blood cholesterol and the risk of heart disease.
Name some common food sources of trans-fatty acids.
cakes, cookies, donuts, pastry, crackers, margarine, deep fried foods, snack chips
What is the significance of trans-fatty acids in the diet?
behave more like saturated fats, increasing blood cholesterol and the risk of heart disease
Where do trans-fatty acids typically occur?
in partially hydrogenated foods/fats.
essential amino acid
There are 9 which the body can't make or make enough of and therefore must be taken in via the diet.
nonessential amino acid
The body can synthesize these amino acids for itself and therefore they do not need to be taken in via the diet.
conditionally essential
Sometimes a nonessential amino acid can become essential under special circumstances.
Name 5 guidelines for identifying a fad diet.
sounds too good to be true; recommends using a single food as the key to the program; promises of quick and easy weight loss; eliminates an entire food group; guarantees unrealistic outcomes; requires the purchase of a special product; bases evidence for effectiveness on testimonials
basal metabolic rate
the rate of energy used for metabolism under specific conditions
What factors increase and decrease BMR?
height +; age -; growth +; gender, body compositon +/-; fever +; stress +; environmental temp +; fasting/malnutrition -; hormones +/-; smoking +; caffeine +; sleep -
What would a clinician advise someone to help lower his/her risk of heart disease?
lose weight as this can lower both blood cholesterol and blood pressure
What is the leading cause of premature deaths?
tobacco
What is second only to smoking in causing premature deaths?
obesity
Why do fad diets often produce weight loss, at least initially?
They are designed to limit energy intake to around 1200 kcal/day.
satiety
the feeling of satisfaction resulting from consumption of a meal
If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, who will be heavier?
The dancer will be heavier because she has more muscle mass.
What is the best approach to weight loss?
reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
What is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people?
0.5-2 lbs/week
thermogenesis
generation of heat
Because obesity apparently has many causes, even in a single individual, what seems to be the best approach?
prevention
Where is visceral fat chiefly stored?
around the abdominal organs
What primarily determines a person's susceptibility to obesity?
heredity and environment
According to much research, what is a characteristic of excess body fat that is distributed primarily around the abdomen?
It is associated with increased mortality for both sexes.
Waist circumference can best be used to assess what?
abdominal fat stores
What kind of statement would suggest that a diet plan is an unsound, fad diet?
"Once you complete this 6-month plan, you'll never have to diet again."
What is an important aid in any weight-loss diet program?
increase physical activity
Name a food that has a great power to suppress hunger.
apples
Name a significant factor associated with interpretation of body composition values.
It is possible that muscular people may be classified as overweight.
fad diet
a popular eating plan that promises quick weight loss
Name a characteristic of the eating pattern of people with bulimia nervosa.
Binge eating typically occurs after a period of strict dieting.
Name a feature of weight-loss remedies.
Dietary supplements are not necessarily tested for safety or effectiveness.
Name a feature of the body mass index.
It correlates with disease risks.
Name some characteristics of obese people.
they do not maintain their weight losses; they often have feelings of rejection; it is viewed as a sign of robust health in many cultures
Name some typical foods chosen by a person with bulimia nervosa during a binge.
ice cream; cookies; bread
According to much research, in what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease?
abdomen
What is the principal reason that appetite is turned off immediately after a person finishes an intense workout?
Glucose and fatty acids are still abundant in the blood.
As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight in men?
1200
body mass index
an index of a person's weight in relation to height body mass index
What is the primary reason for not including the value for adaptive thermogenesis when calculating energy requirements?
It is too variable to measure.
What is another name for intra-abdominal fat?
visceral fat
A high risk of weight-related health problems is seen in women whose waist circumference begins to exceed what measurement?
35 inches
What is another name for clinically severe obesity?
morbid obesity
Name some characteristics of the results of weight-loss surgery.
deficiencies of vitamins and minerals are common in the long term; hunger is suppressed; dramatic improvements are seen in blood lipids, diabetes, and blood pressure; lifelong medical supervision is necessary
Name an example of a behavior modification technique for weight control.
keep a record of your eating habits
Research in obese people seems to show that there is less susceptibility to health problems provided that the excess body fat is distributed where?
around the hips and thighs
What are some known health risks for being underweight?
giving birth to unhealthy infants; infertility in women; increased cancer-induced wasting
Name some characteristics of food portion sizes.
they have increased most notably at fast-food restaurants compared with conventional eating establishments; they have increased in general and this change parallels the increasing prevalence of obesity; they are both high in fat and large in size at restaurants; reducing energy density has a bigger impact than reducing portion size as a means of lowering total energy intake
According to body mass index values, what fraction of the U.S. adult population is considered overweight or obese?
2/3
Name a characteristic of most fad diets.
They limit food choices, thereby reducing energy intake.
How does television watching contribute to obesity?
it gives high exposure to energy-dense foods featured in the commercial advertisements; it promotes inactivity; it promotes between-meal snacking
Name an example of a group that has a high metabolic rate?
younger individuals
transcription
the process whereby messenger RNA is made from a DNA template
n the metabolism of amino acids for energy, what is the fate of the amino group?​
The amino acid is deaminated - stripped of their nitrogen-containing amino groups. Two products result: ammonia (NH3) and the carbon structure without its amino group - often a keto acid.
The disease phenylketonuria is related chiefly to abnormal metabolism of what?
the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine
Where does protein digestion begin in the human body?
Proteins are crushed and moistened in the mouth, but the real action begins in the stomach.
Which food protein has the best assortment of essential amino acids for the human body?​
foods derived from animals (meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, and milk and milk products
Which structural feature of fatty acids determines their susceptibility to spoilage by oxygen?
Polyunsaturated fats spoil most readily because their double bonds are unstable.
Studies show that a 1 percent increase in dietary saturated fatty acids will raise the risk of heart disease by what percentage?
2 percent
What part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?
small intestine
What lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery?
HDL
What is a characteristic of farm-raised fish?
lower amounts of mercury and lower amounts of omega-3 fatty acids
When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and what happens in the energy in the molecules?
stored as glycogen and fat
The feeling of satiety from weight-loss diets is best achieved by diets rich in what?
complex carbohydrates
What is the major cause of insulin resistance?
excess body weight