Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
NR442 - Community Health Exam 1
Terms in this set (56)
A group of people having common personal or environmental characteristics
May also refer to all of the people in a defined community
Subgroups or sub-populations that have some common characteristics or concerns
A collection of people who interact with one another and whose common interests or characteristics form the basis for a sense of unity of belonging
3 defining factors: people, place, interaction (common characteristics, interests, goals)
Community Health Nurse
Organized health efforts at the community level through both government and private efforts
Population based nursing
Prevention the progression of disease at the earliest period/phase feasible using the appropriate level(s) of prevention
Should be aware of health patters/indicators
Identifies areas for further investigation and intervention
"Application of the nursing process in caring for individuals, families and groups where they live, work or go to school or as they move through the health care system"
Emphasis is on acute and chronic care
Public Health Nurse
*Identification of populations at risk
*Desires to prolong life
Preserve the health of the community and surrounding populations by focusing on health promotion and health maintenance of individuals, families, and groups within the community.
Core Public Health Functions - 10 Essential Services
*Assessment: Regular collection, analysis, and information sharing about health conditions, risks, and resources in a community.
Policy development: Use of information gathered during assessment to develop local and state health policies and to direct resources toward those policies.
*Assurance: Focuses on the availability of necessary heath services throughout the community. It includes maintaining the ability of both public health agencies and private providers to manage day-to-day operations and the capacity to respond to critical situations and emergencies.
Public Health Intervention Wheel
1. Population based
2. Three levels of practice (community, system, individual/family)
3. Identifies and defines 17 public health interventions
Interventions are actions taken on behalf of communities, systems, and individuals/families to improve or protect health status
Emphasis of Medical Care
Activities that directly prevent a problem before it occurs by altering susceptibility or reducing exposure for susceptible individuals
*General health promotion
Early detection and prompt intervention during the period of early disease pathogenesis
Implemented after a problem has begun but before signs and symptoms appear
Targets populations at risk
Populations that have experienced disease or injury
Focuses on limitation of disability and rehabilitation
Keep health problems from getting worse
Reduces the effects of disease and injury
Restore individuals to optimal level of functioning
Insulin injection education
Modifiable Risk Factors
Risk factors that can be changed to reduce risk
•Diet high in calories, total fats, cholesterol, reﬁned carbohydrates, and sodium
•Elevated serum lipid values
•Environment (Least modifiable)
Non-Modifiable Risk Factors
Risks one has little or no control over
Interrelationships between the agent, host, and environment
Web of Causation
Illustrates the complexity of relationships in a disease process
Describes the number of new cases of a disease
The number of all cases of a disease in one population at one time
Prevalence Rate Equation
Number of existing cases divided by total population, equals. Total multiplies by 1000.
Gains an understanding of the environmental layout, including geographic features and the location of agencies, services, businesses, and industries, and can locate possible areas of environmental concern through "sight, sense, and sound."
Shoe Leather Survey
Traveling through a community
Establish certain hunches or hypotheses about the community's health, strengths, and potential health problems
Diseases that are always present in a population (e.g., colds and pneumonia)
Diseases that are not always present in a population but flare up on occasion (e.g., diphtheria and measles)
The existence of disease in a large proportion of the population: a global epidemic (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and annual outbreaks of influenza type A)
Primary Vaccination Failure
Caused by the improper storage or administration of vaccinations
Caused by lifestyle choices
The Mission of Public Health
Entitles all people to basic necessities such as adequate income, health protection, and accepts collective burdens to make it possible.
ANA Code of Ethics
Promotes social reform by focusing on health policy and legislation to positively affect accessibility, quality, and cost of health care
The Walk Score
Factors that measure a communities walk-ability:
•A center: It may be a shopping center, park, or main street
•Mixed use, mixed income: Businesses are located next to homes at all price points
•Pedestrian-centric design: Businesses are close to the street to encourage foot traffic with parking in back
•Density: The city is compact enough to allow businesses to flourish and for public transportation to run frequently
•Parks and public space: There are plenty of public areas in which to gather
•Nearby schools and workplaces: Schools and workplaces are close enough that most people can walk from home
Every 10 years
Describe the population characteristics of the nation within progressively smaller geopolitical entities (states, counties, and census tracts)
Also describes large metropolitan areas that extend beyond formal city boundaries, called metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs)
Tabulates many demographic variables including population size.
Child with Lice Protocol
Send home with instructions to tx
Inspect all other children in school
Notify all parents of issue
You do NOT have to notify the health department
The study of the amount and distribution of a disease in human populations
Used by public health professionals
Identified patterns frequently indicate possible causes of disease
Investigation of the causes of disease, or etiology
Examine complex relationships among the many determinants of disease
Criteria that makes individuals more susceptible to a disease include modifiable and non modifiable factors
Prior immunological experience (active/passive)
Intercurrent or preexisting disease
Immunization Order for Children
Least invasive to most invasive
Insure location standardization
No contraindications for multiple injections
A decrease in red blood cells when the body can't absorb enough vitamin B-12
Lacks intrinsic factor
*Zika virus is caused by misquotes, tx is to remove any stagnant water in the community
*Immunize children to prevent disease outbreaks
*Interventions must have a specific, measurable, and objective goal for evaluation
*Food poisoning occurs most often from poor hand hygiene
*The community needs assessments' first step is to identify the aggregate
*The entire community is responsible for childrens' health, including the community health nurse and the school nurse
*Only STI vaccination is for HPV
*Passive immunity vaccinations are the immunoglobulin vaccinations
*It has been estimated that individual behaviors are responsible for about 50% of all premature deaths in the United States
*Healthy People 2020's biggest criticism is too much emphasis on personal responsibility while ignoring social and environmental changes
*Variable that has the greatest impact on community health is behavioral choices
*Planned interventions success is determined based on comparison of original baseline to current data
Public Health Interventions
*Surveillance: Describes and monitors health events through ongoing and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health data for the purpose of planning, implementing, and evaluating public health interventions.
*Disease and other health event investigation: Systematically gathers and analyzes data regarding threats to the health of populations, ascertains the source of the threat, identifies cases and others at risk, and determines control measures.
*Outreach: Locates populations of interest or populations at risk and provides information about the nature of the concern, what can be done about it, and how services can be obtained.
*Screening: Identifies individuals with unrecognized health risk factors or asymptomatic disease conditions in populations.
*Case finding: Locates individuals and families with identified risk factors and connects them with resources.
*Referral and follow-up: Helps individuals, families, groups, organizations, and/or communities identify and access necessary resources to prevent or resolve problems or concerns.
*Case management: Optimizes self-care capabilities of individuals and families and the capacity of systems and communities to coordinate and provide services.
*Delegated functions: Direct care tasks a registered professional nurse carries out under the authority of a health care practitioner as allowed by law.
*Health teaching: Communicates facts, ideas, and skills that change knowledge, attitudes, values, beliefs, behaviors, and practices of individuals, families, systems, and/or communities.
*Counseling: Establishes an interpersonal relationship intended to increase or enhance capacity for self-care and coping with a community, system, and family or individual.
*Consultation: Seeks information and generates optional solutions to perceived problems or issues through interactive problem-solving with a community, system, and family or individual.
*Collaboration: Commits two or more persons or organizations to achieve a common goal through enhancing the capacity of one or more of the members to promote and protect health.
*Coalition building: Promotes and develops alliances among organizations or constituencies for a common purpose.
*Community organizing: Helps community groups identify common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and develop and implement strategies for reaching the goals they collectively have set.
*Advocacy: Plead someone's cause or act on someone's behalf, with focus on developing the capacity of the community, system, and individual or family to plead their own cause or act on their own behalf.
*Social marketing: Uses commercial marketing principles and technologies for programs designed to influence the knowledge, attitudes, values, beliefs, behaviors, and practices of the population of interest.
*Policy development and enforcement: Places health issues on decision-makers' agendas, acquires a plan of resolution, and determines needed resources, resulting in laws, rules, regulations, ordinances, and policies. Policy enforcement compels others to comply with laws, rules, regulations, ordinances, and policies.
Can be applied to the community as a client:
*Diagnosing health problems (actual and potential)
Describe an inferred problem for an individual, implies a etiology for that problem and gives evidence to support the inference and has both short term and long term goals.
Focused on an aggregate, requires multidisciplinary and multiple determinant interventions, and outcomes are usually long term
Describe human responses to levels of wellness in both individuals, families, and communities that have a potential for a higher level of wellness.
The study of the distribution and determinants of health and disease in human populations
The principal science of public health
*Primary prevention (health promotion and specific prevention)
*Secondary and tertiary prevention
*Used to describe the distribution of disease and its determinants in populations
*Study population health care delivery
*Evaluate use of community health services
Nurses must apply findings in practice
*Incorporate results into prevention programs for communities and at-risk populations
*Extend application into major health policy decisions
4 Needs to Assess
Expressed needs - demand for services and the market behavior of the targeted population
Normative need - lack, deficit, or inadequacy of services determined by health professionals
Perceived need - wants and desires expressed by audience
Relative need - gap showing health disparities between advantaged and disadvantaged population
Active - Natural contact and infection with the antigen
Passive - Natural contact with antibody transplacentally or through colostrum and breast milk
Active - Inoculation of antigen
Passive - Inoculation of antibody or antitoxin
Viral vaccinations: Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Oral Polio, Vaccinia, Yellow Fever, Varicella
Bacterial vaccinations: BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin)
Recombinant vaccinations: Oral Typhoid
Viral: influenza, polio, rabies, and hepatitis A
Bacterial: typhoid, cholera, and plague
Subunit (fractional): influenza, acellular pertussis, typhoid Vi and Lyme disease
Toxoid: diphtheria and tetanus
Recombinant: hepatitis B
Conjugate polysaccharide: Haemophilus influenzae type B and pneumococcal 7-valent
Pure polysaccharide: Pneumococcal 23-valent, meningococcal, and Haemophilus influenzae type b
Biological environment (human populations, flora, fauna)
Socioeconomic environment (occupation, urbanization and economic development, disruption)
Any combination of health education and related organizational, economic, and environmental supports for behavior of individuals, groups, or communities conducive to health
Motivated by the desire to increase well-being and to reach the best possible health potential
Behaviors in which one engages with the specific intent to prevent disease, detect disease in the early stages, or maximize health within the constraints of disease
An important step in maintaining health
Pender's Health Promotion Model (HPM)
Health is a positive dynamic state rather than simply the absence of disease
Focuses on three areas: individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and behavioral outcomes
Health Belief Model (HBM)
Addresses problem behaviors that evoke health concerns
A person's health-related behavior depends on the person's perception of four critical areas:
*The severity of a potential illness,
*The person's susceptibility to that illness,
*The benefits of taking a preventive action, and
*The barriers to taking that action.
Transtheoretical Model (TTM)
Developing effective interventions to promote health behavior change
Describes how people modify a problem behavior or acquire a positive behavior.
Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
An individual's behavior is determined by their intention to engage in the behavior is a result of the individual's attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
Public Policy Impacts Health:
Creation and regulation of public goods: create, regulate, and maintain public goods that foster supportive environments for good health.
Regulation of natural resources: regulate natural resources to prevent harm.
Requirements and mandates to protect citizens: set requirements and mandates that protect citizens.
Direct support: provide direct support in ways that affect the drivers of health.
Creation of opportunities and incentives: reduce barriers, create opportunities, or provide incentives that influence the choices that impact health.
*Policy denotes a course of action to be followed by a government, business, or institution to obtain a desired effect.
*Public policy denotes precepts and standards formed by governmental bodies (legislative, executive, or judicial) that are of fundamental concern to the state and the whole of the general public.
*Health policy is a statement of a decision regarding a goal in health care and a plan for achieving that goal.
*Nursing policy specifies nursing leadership that influences and shapes health policy and nursing practice.
*Institutional policies are rules that govern worksites and identify the institution's goals, operation, and treatment of employees.
*Organizational policies are rules that govern organizations and their positions on issues with which the organization is concerned
*Social policy is policy associated with individuals and communities. In very general terms, social policy can be defined as the branch of public policy that advances social welfare and enhances participation in society.
*Laws are rules of conduct or procedure; they result from a combination of legislation, judicial decisions, constitutional decisions, and administrative actions.
*Public health law focuses on legal issues in public health practice and on the public health effects of legal practice. Public health law typically has three major areas of practice: police power, disease and injury prevention, and the law of populations.
*Statutes are any laws passed by a legislative body at the federal, state, or local level.
*Organizations are associations that set and enforce standards in a particular area; a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to accomplish a purpose.
*Professional associations are nonprofit organizations seeking to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession, and the public interest.
Sets with similar terms
Community Health Ch 1
Community Health: Exam 1
Community Health Quiz 1
Sets found in the same folder
NR 442 - Exam 1
Community Health NR442 exam 1
NR 442 Unit 1, 2, 3, and 4
NR442-Community Health (Weeks One, Two, & Three) F…
Other sets by this creator
NCLEX Study Topics
NCLEX - Drugs
Other Quizlet sets
BIO EXAM 2 QUESTIONS
Chapter 3 Drivers Ed
HIS 121 PART 2: Quiz 6
NSG 132 Cerebral Vascular Accident
Assessment objectives are broad statements outlining expected accomplishments.
What is the true prevalence of disease?
What do you believe is our most serious drug problem? Why?
Integrative medicine or integrated medicine are complementary medical practices for which there is research evidence of safety and effectiveness.