103 terms

Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition Review of Chapters 10-13

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What is the major source of dietary sulfur?
protein
What iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream?
hemoglobin
Chromium deficiency is characterized by what?
hyperglycemia
What does a DEXA scan measure?
bone density
Name some protective factors for osteoporosis.
moderate alcohol intake; obesity; having African American heritage
What is known to enhance calcium absorption from the GI tract?
stomach acid, lactose, pregnancy
What is known to limit calcium absorption from the GI tract?
oxalates
Keshan disease risk increases with a deficiency of what?
selenium
What is the function of MFP factor?
enhances iron absorption
What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?
processed foods
What nutrient deficiency during pregnancy may give rise to a child with cretinism?
iodine
Goiter is caused primarily by a deficiency of what?
iodine
Which of the following foods are significant sources of oxalates?
spinach and sweet potatoes
To serve its function in oxygen delivery to body tissues, what must iron interact closely with?
copper and vitamin C
What is the major intracellular cation?
potassium
What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride?
public water
What is a goitrogen?
a substance that interferes with the functioning of the thyroid gland
In the United States, iron is currently added to what foods?
breads and cereals
bioavailability
a measure of the rate at which a nutrient is absorbed and used by the body
hydroxyapatite
the calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones
The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent what?
hypertension
What is iron overload also known as?
hemochromatosis
Name some factors that are known to enhance the absorption of iron.
ascorbic acid, MFP factor, organic acids
pica
the name given to the ingestion of nonnutritive substances
For optimal utilization of calcium supplements, what is the optimal dosage?
several times a day, in doses up to 500 mg
Name some factors that have a high correlation with risk for osteoporosis.
being thin, being female, having anorexia nervosa
The rare genetic disorders Menkes disease and Wilson's disease result from abnormal utilization of what?
copper
What is the most common cause of iron overload?
a genetic predisposition
Abnormally low blood sodium concentration is known specifically as what?
hyponatremia
After age, what is the next strongest risk factor for osteoporosis?
sex
What is the major extracellular cation?
sodium
Margarine enriched with phytosterols is known to do what?
reduce blood cholesterol
Habitual intake of soft water is most likely to aggravate what condition?
hypertension
Iron deficiency in children is likely to result from a diet that overemphasizes what?
milk
In the body, water that resides between cells is known as what?
interstitial fluid
Magnesium is known to be involved in what?
prevention of dental caries, blood clotting, muscle contraction
How does antidiuretic hormone function?
It stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys.
A woman with a severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy may give birth to a child with what?
cretinism
What is the most common cause of iodine deficiency?
insufficient intake of iodine from foods
Milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which vitamin?
riboflavin
Name a characteristic of carotenoids in foods.
They are found in many vegetables and fruits.
Name some characteristics of thiamin nutrition.
recommended intakes are based primarily on participation in enzyme activity, severe deficiency may lead to edema, severe deficiency may occur without edema
If the diet contains precursor vitamin A, which tissues can use it to form vitamin A?
intestinal cells
Name some consequences of ingesting excess vitamin C supplements.
they appear safe at levels up to 2000 mg/day, they frequently cause diarrhea, they interfere with laboratory urine tests for the diagnosis of diabetes
Which protein requires ascorbic acid for its formation?
collagen
Name some foods that a person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select.
apricots, sweet potatoes, liver
By law, what amount of folate (µg) must be added to 100 g of food products such as breads, flour, and rice?
140
In what system would the effects of a vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?
skeletal
Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of what?
Vitamin B12
What form of tocopherol shows vitamin E activity in the human body?
alpha
In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?
blood clotting
A child with bowed legs is likely deficient in which vitamin?
vitamin D
The vitamin deficiency disease pellagra means what?
"rough skin"
Name a major source of vitamin E in the diet?
vegetable oils
What feature is shared by vitamins E and K?
supplements of either may interfere with anticlotting medications
Large doses of nicotinic acid result in what?
dilation of capillaries, increased HDL cholesterol, lowering of LDL cholesterol
Name some features of vitamin K in nutrition.
risk of deficiency is increased in people taking antibiotics for prolonged periods, good food sources are plants of the cabbage family, infants frequently require a supplement at birth
What is a chief function of the B vitamins?
coenzyme participation
Approximately what percentage of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency?
80
Which of the following is characteristic of the tocopherols?
They are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats.
Beriberi results from a deficiency of what?
thiamin
Methylcobalamin is a coenzyme form of what?
vitamin B12
If someone is looking to increase dietary sources of vitamin C, but has a strong dislike for all citrus fruits, what foods would you recommend?
brussels sprouts, broccoli, strawberries
In what capacity does vitamin C function?
cofactor in collagen formation
A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the corners of the mouth?
riboflavin
Name a source of vitamin B12.
hot dog
How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?
It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins.
A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from a supplement of what?
vitamin D
What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk?
cardboard
What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency?
inadequate absorption
Name some characteristics of vitamin D nutrition.
excessive intake may lead to mineral deposits in the kidneys, fortified milk is the major dietary source in the U.S. population, deficient intake may lead to altered bone composition
How many different forms of vitamin A are active in the body?
three
Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?
exposure to sunlight
What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?
the amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body
What population group has the highest risk for vitamin K deficiency?
newborns
Biotin can be synthesized by what?
intestinal bacteria
Name some difficulties in obtaining the recommended amounts of vitamin D from the diet.
only a few foods contain vitamin D naturally; meeting vitamin D needs can be difficult without adequate sunshine, fortification or supplementation
Name some nonfortified sources of vitamin D.
egg yolks and oily fish
heme iron
the iron in food which is bound to hemoglobin and myoglobin proteins
Name some food sources of heme iron.
found only in red meat, fish and poultry
How much heme iron is absorbed in the body?
25%
nonheme iron
iron that is not bound to proteins
How much nonheme iron is absorbed?
17 %; dietary factors may influence absorption
Where is nonheme iron found?
both plant and animal based food
What inhibits absorption of nonheme iron?
phytates, vegetable proteins and polyphenols
What does the DASH eating plan emphasize?
potassium rich fruits, vegetables and low fat dairy products; includes whole grains, nuts, poultry and fish; calls for reduction of sodium, red and processed meats, sweets and sugar containing beverages
Why is the DASH diet thought to be effective?
high intake of potassium rich fruits and vegetables and calcium rich low fat diary products
Name some risk factors for osteoporosis.
age, sex, physical activity and body weight, hormones, genetics, smoking and alcohol
Name 6 different functions for water in the body.
carries nutrients and waste, participates in
metabolic reactions, serves as a solvent, acts as a lubricant and cushion, aids in regulation of body temperature, maintains blood volume
Absorption efficiency of vitamin D supplements is markedly improved when they are taken when?
with the largest meal of the day - improves absorption, resulting in a 50% increase in blood levels
What is associated with the condition known as xerosis?
abnormal drying of the skin and mucous membranes; a sign of Vitamin A deficiency
Keratinization is the result of what?
vitamin A deficiency
The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may be treated with supplements of what?
vitamin B1 (thiamin)
Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect its content of what?
water-soluble vitamins: vitamin C, folate, vitamin B6, thiamin
Which of the following minerals is involved in the transportation of lipids through the body's lymph and blood systems?
phosphorus
Certain green leafy vegetables have a very low calcium bioavailability due to the presence of what?
naturally occurring binders
At what age do adults normally begin to lose bone mass?
30-40 years
When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?
sodium and chloride
Which of the following is a major function of chloride?
helps maintain gastric acidity
One of the chief functions of chromium is participation in the metabolism of what?
carbohydrates
Deficiency of which mineral is associated with retarded growth and sexual development in children?
zinc
About how much iron is absorbed from a vegetarian diet compared with an omnivorous diet?
1/2 as much
Commercially available zinc-containing lozenges are advertised as being effective against what?
the common cold