383 terms

Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition Review of Chapters 1-16

STUDY
PLAY
What is the major source of dietary sulfur?
protein
What iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream?
hemoglobin
Chromium deficiency is characterized by what?
hyperglycemia
What does a DEXA scan measure?
bone density
Name some protective factors for osteoporosis.
moderate alcohol intake; obesity; having African American heritage
What is known to enhance calcium absorption from the GI tract?
stomach acid, lactose, pregnancy
What is known to limit calcium absorption from the GI tract?
oxalates
Keshan disease risk increases with a deficiency of what?
selenium
What is the function of MFP factor?
enhances iron absorption
What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?
processed foods
What nutrient deficiency during pregnancy may give rise to a child with cretinism?
iodine
Goiter is caused primarily by a deficiency of what?
iodine
Which of the following foods are significant sources of oxalates?
spinach and sweet potatoes
To serve its function in oxygen delivery to body tissues, what must iron interact closely with?
copper and vitamin C
What is the major intracellular cation?
potassium
What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride?
public water
What is a goitrogen?
a substance that interferes with the functioning of the thyroid gland
In the United States, iron is currently added to what foods?
breads and cereals
bioavailability
a measure of the rate at which a nutrient is absorbed and used by the body
hydroxyapatite
the calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones
The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent what?
hypertension
What is iron overload also known as?
hemochromatosis
Name some factors that are known to enhance the absorption of iron.
ascorbic acid, MFP factor, organic acids
pica
the name given to the ingestion of nonnutritive substances
For optimal utilization of calcium supplements, what is the optimal dosage?
several times a day, in doses up to 500 mg
Name some factors that have a high correlation with risk for osteoporosis.
being thin, being female, having anorexia nervosa
The rare genetic disorders Menkes disease and Wilson's disease result from abnormal utilization of what?
copper
What is the most common cause of iron overload?
a genetic predisposition
Abnormally low blood sodium concentration is known specifically as what?
hyponatremia
After age, what is the next strongest risk factor for osteoporosis?
sex
What is the major extracellular cation?
sodium
Margarine enriched with phytosterols is known to do what?
reduce blood cholesterol
Habitual intake of soft water is most likely to aggravate what condition?
hypertension
Iron deficiency in children is likely to result from a diet that overemphasizes what?
milk
In the body, water that resides between cells is known as what?
interstitial fluid
Magnesium is known to be involved in what?
prevention of dental caries, blood clotting, muscle contraction
How does antidiuretic hormone function?
It stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys.
A woman with a severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy may give birth to a child with what?
cretinism
What is the most common cause of iodine deficiency?
insufficient intake of iodine from foods
Milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which vitamin?
riboflavin
Name a characteristic of carotenoids in foods.
They are found in many vegetables and fruits.
Name some characteristics of thiamin nutrition.
recommended intakes are based primarily on participation in enzyme activity, severe deficiency may lead to edema, severe deficiency may occur without edema
If the diet contains precursor vitamin A, which tissues can use it to form vitamin A?
intestinal cells
Name some consequences of ingesting excess vitamin C supplements.
they appear safe at levels up to 2000 mg/day, they frequently cause diarrhea, they interfere with laboratory urine tests for the diagnosis of diabetes
Which protein requires ascorbic acid for its formation?
collagen
Name some foods that a person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select.
apricots, sweet potatoes, liver
By law, what amount of folate (µg) must be added to 100 g of food products such as breads, flour, and rice?
140
In what system would the effects of a vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?
skeletal
Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of what?
Vitamin B12
What form of tocopherol shows vitamin E activity in the human body?
alpha
In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?
blood clotting
A child with bowed legs is likely deficient in which vitamin?
vitamin D
The vitamin deficiency disease pellagra means what?
"rough skin"
Name a major source of vitamin E in the diet?
vegetable oils
What feature is shared by vitamins E and K?
supplements of either may interfere with anticlotting medications
Large doses of nicotinic acid result in what?
dilation of capillaries, increased HDL cholesterol, lowering of LDL cholesterol
Name some features of vitamin K in nutrition.
risk of deficiency is increased in people taking antibiotics for prolonged periods, good food sources are plants of the cabbage family, infants frequently require a supplement at birth
What is a chief function of the B vitamins?
coenzyme participation
Approximately what percentage of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency?
80
Which of the following is characteristic of the tocopherols?
They are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats.
Beriberi results from a deficiency of what?
thiamin
Methylcobalamin is a coenzyme form of what?
vitamin B12
If someone is looking to increase dietary sources of vitamin C, but has a strong dislike for all citrus fruits, what foods would you recommend?
brussels sprouts, broccoli, strawberries
In what capacity does vitamin C function?
cofactor in collagen formation
A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the corners of the mouth?
riboflavin
Name a source of vitamin B12.
hot dog
How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?
It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins.
A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from a supplement of what?
vitamin D
What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk?
cardboard
What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency?
inadequate absorption
Name some characteristics of vitamin D nutrition.
excessive intake may lead to mineral deposits in the kidneys, fortified milk is the major dietary source in the U.S. population, deficient intake may lead to altered bone composition
How many different forms of vitamin A are active in the body?
three
Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?
exposure to sunlight
What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?
the amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body
What population group has the highest risk for vitamin K deficiency?
newborns
Biotin can be synthesized by what?
intestinal bacteria
Name some difficulties in obtaining the recommended amounts of vitamin D from the diet.
only a few foods contain vitamin D naturally; meeting vitamin D needs can be difficult without adequate sunshine, fortification or supplementation
Name some nonfortified sources of vitamin D.
egg yolks and oily fish
heme iron
the iron in food which is bound to hemoglobin and myoglobin proteins
Name some food sources of heme iron.
found only in red meat, fish and poultry
How much heme iron is absorbed in the body?
25%
nonheme iron
iron that is not bound to proteins
How much nonheme iron is absorbed?
17 %; dietary factors may influence absorption
Where is nonheme iron found?
both plant and animal based food
What inhibits absorption of nonheme iron?
phytates, vegetable proteins and polyphenols
What does the DASH eating plan emphasize?
potassium rich fruits, vegetables and low fat dairy products; includes whole grains, nuts, poultry and fish; calls for reduction of sodium, red and processed meats, sweets and sugar containing beverages
Why is the DASH diet thought to be effective?
high intake of potassium rich fruits and vegetables and calcium rich low fat diary products
Name some risk factors for osteoporosis.
age, sex, physical activity and body weight, hormones, genetics, smoking and alcohol
Name 6 different functions for water in the body.
carries nutrients and waste, participates in
metabolic reactions, serves as a solvent, acts as a lubricant and cushion, aids in regulation of body temperature, maintains blood volume
Absorption efficiency of vitamin D supplements is markedly improved when they are taken when?
with the largest meal of the day - improves absorption, resulting in a 50% increase in blood levels
What is associated with the condition known as xerosis?
abnormal drying of the skin and mucous membranes; a sign of Vitamin A deficiency
Keratinization is the result of what?
vitamin A deficiency
The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may be treated with supplements of what?
vitamin B1 (thiamin)
Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect its content of what?
water-soluble vitamins: vitamin C, folate, vitamin B6, thiamin
Which of the following minerals is involved in the transportation of lipids through the body's lymph and blood systems?
phosphorus
Certain green leafy vegetables have a very low calcium bioavailability due to the presence of what?
naturally occurring binders
At what age do adults normally begin to lose bone mass?
30-40 years
When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?
sodium and chloride
Which of the following is a major function of chloride?
helps maintain gastric acidity
One of the chief functions of chromium is participation in the metabolism of what?
carbohydrates
Deficiency of which mineral is associated with retarded growth and sexual development in children?
zinc
About how much iron is absorbed from a vegetarian diet compared with an omnivorous diet?
1/2 as much
Commercially available zinc-containing lozenges are advertised as being effective against what?
the common cold
The oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of what?
preformed linolenic acid
What is a feature of catabolic reactions?
involve release of energy
protein turnover
the synthesis and degradation of body proteins
Name some major sources of cholesterol.
hamburger, meat, shrimp
What is a major feature of the Mediterranean diet?
a liberal intake of olive oil
Name some diseases that are known to be linked to excessive intake of fats.
heart disease, obesity, cancer
What organ is the major site for gluconeogenesis?
liver
What type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil?
monounsaturated
edema
tissue swelling that results from water accumulating between cells
What compounds may be synthesized from cholesterol?
sex hormones, vitamin D, bile
What compound can not be synthesized from cholesterol?
glucose
Name a food with a high percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form.
corn oil
Name a food with a high percentage of its fat in saturated form.
coconut oil
What is a major cause of rancidity of lipids in foods?
exposure to heat and oxygen
Name some characteristics of hydrogenated oils.
they lower HDL and raise LDL cholesterol in the body; some of their fatty acids change shape from cis to trans; they are stored in adipose tissue; products containing them become rancid later, contributing to a longer shelf life
What is the approximate kcal content of one pound of body fat?
3500
In comparison to the composition of carbohydrates and fats, which element found in proteins makes them unique?
nitrogen
How do lipids differ?
in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of double bonds
What function does a buffer perform?
helps maintain a constant pH
What process results in the hardening of an egg when it is exposed to heat?
denaturation
In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, what does a high-density lipoprotein contain?
less lipid
A low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of what?
high-density lipoproteins
How is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level?
It enhances excretion of bile leading to increased cholesterol turnover.
If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?
Protein synthesis will be limited.
Bile is known to assist in the absorption of what?
fat only
What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid?
pepsin
oils
lipids that are liquid at room temperature
dispensable amino acid
amino acid that can be synthesized by the body
The body's need for water increases on a diet high in what?
protein
Name a good source of omega-3 fats.
salmon
What sometimes happens to the double bond configurations of oils that are partially hydrogenated?
changes one or more of its double bond configurations from cis to trans
What is a common feature of plant sterols?
inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol
What type of protein would the body make in order to heal a wound?
collagen
What does the body's amino acid pool consists of?
both essential and nonessential amino acids
What does a high risk of heart attack correlate with?
high blood levels of low-density lipoproteins
Which of the following defines a coenzyme?
an organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme
How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins?
20
A person who is starving is losing what?
glycogen, protein, and fat
fats
lipids that are solid at room temperature
Name a food that contains a low level of cholesterol per serving.
steamed corn
What does an aerobic reaction require?
oxygen
trans-fatty acids
fatty acids with hydrogens on the opposite sides of the double bonds These fats behave more like saturated fats, increasing blood cholesterol and the risk of heart disease.
Name some common food sources of trans-fatty acids.
cakes, cookies, donuts, pastry, crackers, margarine, deep fried foods, snack chips
What is the significance of trans-fatty acids in the diet?
behave more like saturated fats, increasing blood cholesterol and the risk of heart disease
Where do trans-fatty acids typically occur?
in partially hydrogenated foods/fats.
essential amino acid
There are 9 which the body can't make or make enough of and therefore must be taken in via the diet.
nonessential amino acid
The body can synthesize these amino acids for itself and therefore they do not need to be taken in via the diet.
conditionally essential
Sometimes a nonessential amino acid can become essential under special circumstances.
Name 5 guidelines for identifying a fad diet.
sounds too good to be true; recommends using a single food as the key to the program; promises of quick and easy weight loss; eliminates an entire food group; guarantees unrealistic outcomes; requires the purchase of a special product; bases evidence for effectiveness on testimonials
basal metabolic rate
the rate of energy used for metabolism under specific conditions
What factors increase and decrease BMR?
height +; age -; growth +; gender, body compositon +/-; fever +; stress +; environmental temp +; fasting/malnutrition -; hormones +/-; smoking +; caffeine +; sleep -
What would a clinician advise someone to help lower his/her risk of heart disease?
lose weight as this can lower both blood cholesterol and blood pressure
What is the leading cause of premature deaths?
tobacco
What is second only to smoking in causing premature deaths?
obesity
Why do fad diets often produce weight loss, at least initially?
They are designed to limit energy intake to around 1200 kcal/day.
satiety
the feeling of satisfaction resulting from consumption of a meal
If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, who will be heavier?
The dancer will be heavier because she has more muscle mass.
What is the best approach to weight loss?
reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
What is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people?
0.5-2 lbs/week
thermogenesis
generation of heat
Because obesity apparently has many causes, even in a single individual, what seems to be the best approach?
prevention
Where is visceral fat chiefly stored?
around the abdominal organs
What primarily determines a person's susceptibility to obesity?
heredity and environment
According to much research, what is a characteristic of excess body fat that is distributed primarily around the abdomen?
It is associated with increased mortality for both sexes.
Waist circumference can best be used to assess what?
abdominal fat stores
What kind of statement would suggest that a diet plan is an unsound, fad diet?
"Once you complete this 6-month plan, you'll never have to diet again."
What is an important aid in any weight-loss diet program?
increase physical activity
Name a food that has a great power to suppress hunger.
apples
Name a significant factor associated with interpretation of body composition values.
It is possible that muscular people may be classified as overweight.
fad diet
a popular eating plan that promises quick weight loss
Name a characteristic of the eating pattern of people with bulimia nervosa.
Binge eating typically occurs after a period of strict dieting.
Name a feature of weight-loss remedies.
Dietary supplements are not necessarily tested for safety or effectiveness.
Name a feature of the body mass index.
It correlates with disease risks.
Name some characteristics of obese people.
they do not maintain their weight losses; they often have feelings of rejection; it is viewed as a sign of robust health in many cultures
Name some typical foods chosen by a person with bulimia nervosa during a binge.
ice cream; cookies; bread
According to much research, in what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease?
abdomen
What is the principal reason that appetite is turned off immediately after a person finishes an intense workout?
Glucose and fatty acids are still abundant in the blood.
As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight in men?
1200
body mass index
an index of a person's weight in relation to height body mass index
What is the primary reason for not including the value for adaptive thermogenesis when calculating energy requirements?
It is too variable to measure.
What is another name for intra-abdominal fat?
visceral fat
A high risk of weight-related health problems is seen in women whose waist circumference begins to exceed what measurement?
35 inches
What is another name for clinically severe obesity?
morbid obesity
Name some characteristics of the results of weight-loss surgery.
deficiencies of vitamins and minerals are common in the long term; hunger is suppressed; dramatic improvements are seen in blood lipids, diabetes, and blood pressure; lifelong medical supervision is necessary
Name an example of a behavior modification technique for weight control.
keep a record of your eating habits
Research in obese people seems to show that there is less susceptibility to health problems provided that the excess body fat is distributed where?
around the hips and thighs
What are some known health risks for being underweight?
giving birth to unhealthy infants; infertility in women; increased cancer-induced wasting
Name some characteristics of food portion sizes.
they have increased most notably at fast-food restaurants compared with conventional eating establishments; they have increased in general and this change parallels the increasing prevalence of obesity; they are both high in fat and large in size at restaurants; reducing energy density has a bigger impact than reducing portion size as a means of lowering total energy intake
According to body mass index values, what fraction of the U.S. adult population is considered overweight or obese?
2/3
Name a characteristic of most fad diets.
They limit food choices, thereby reducing energy intake.
How does television watching contribute to obesity?
it gives high exposure to energy-dense foods featured in the commercial advertisements; it promotes inactivity; it promotes between-meal snacking
Name an example of a group that has a high metabolic rate?
younger individuals
transcription
the process whereby messenger RNA is made from a DNA template
n the metabolism of amino acids for energy, what is the fate of the amino group?​
The amino acid is deaminated - stripped of their nitrogen-containing amino groups. Two products result: ammonia (NH3) and the carbon structure without its amino group - often a keto acid.
The disease phenylketonuria is related chiefly to abnormal metabolism of what?
the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine
Where does protein digestion begin in the human body?
Proteins are crushed and moistened in the mouth, but the real action begins in the stomach.
Which food protein has the best assortment of essential amino acids for the human body?​
foods derived from animals (meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, and milk and milk products
Which structural feature of fatty acids determines their susceptibility to spoilage by oxygen?
Polyunsaturated fats spoil most readily because their double bonds are unstable.
Studies show that a 1 percent increase in dietary saturated fatty acids will raise the risk of heart disease by what percentage?
2 percent
What part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?
small intestine
What lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery?
HDL
What is a characteristic of farm-raised fish?
lower amounts of mercury and lower amounts of omega-3 fatty acids
When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and what happens in the energy in the molecules?
stored as glycogen and fat
The feeling of satiety from weight-loss diets is best achieved by diets rich in what?
complex carbohydrates
What is the major cause of insulin resistance?
excess body weight
What can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?
with the help of sunlight, from a precursor that the body makes from cholesterol
What kind of vitamin is Vitamin K?
fat-soluble
What are some other names of Vitamin K?
phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2), menadione (in supplements)
What are the chief functions of Vitamin K?
synthesis of blood-clotting proteins and bone proteins
What are some significant sources of Vitamin K?
bacterial synthesis in the digestive tract; liver; dark green, leafy vegetables, cabbage-type vegetables; milk
What is a symptom of Vitamin K deficiency?
hemorrhaging
What are some symptoms of Vitamin K toxicity?
none known
What population group is at highest risk for osteomalacia?
adult women with calcium and Vitamin D deficiencies
What is osteomalacia?
a bone disease characterized by softening of the bones; symptoms include bending of the spine and bowing of the legs
What are some significant sources of the retinol form of Vitamin A?
fortified milk. cheese, cream, butter, fortified margarine, eggs, liver
What are some significant sources of the beta-carotene form of Vitamin A?
spinach and other dark green, leafy vegetables, broccoli, deep orange fruits (apricots, cantaloupe) and vegetables (squash, carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin)
If the diet contains precursor vitamin A, which tissues can use it to form vitamin A?
intestine and liver
What are some significant sources of vitamin E?
polyunsaturated plant oils (margarine, salad dressings), dark green, leafy vegetables (spinach, turnip greens, collard greens, broccoli), wheat germ, whole grains, liver, egg yolks, nuts, seeds, fatty meats
What enables much of the world's population to maintain adequate vitamin D status?
enough time in the sun
What feature is shared by vitamins E and K?
dark green, leafy vegetables provide significant sources; hemorrhaging is a deficiency (K) and toxicity (E) effect
When is absorption efficiency of vitamin D supplements markedly improved?
when taken with the largest meal of the day
What is xerosis?
abnormal drying of the skin and mucous membranes
How does xerosis lead to blindness?
At first, the cornea becomes dry and hard because of inadequate mucus production (xerosis). Then xerosis quickly progresses to keratomalacia, the softening of the cornea that leads to irreversible blindness.
Xerosis is a sign of what?
vitamin A deficiency
Keratinization is a sign of what?
vitamin A deficiency
How does keratinization happen?
On the body's outer surface, the epithelial cells change shape and begin to secrete the protein keratin. The skin becomes dry, rough, and scaly as lumps of keratin accumulate.
What is keratin?
the hard, inflexible protein of hair and nails
Increasing the amount of polyunsaturated fats in the diet increases the need for which vitamin?
vitamin E - prevents the oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids
What is another name for thiamin?
vitamin B1
What are some chief functions of thiamin?
part of coenzyme TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate) used in energy metabolism
What are some significant sources of thiamin?
whole-grain, fortified, or enriched grain products; moderate amounts in all nutritious food; pork
How is thiamin easily destroyed?
by heat
What is the deficiency disease of thiamin?
beriberi (wet, with edema; dry, with muscle wasting)
What are some deficiency symptoms of thiamin?
enlarged heart, cardiac failure; muscular weakness; apathy; poor short-term memory, confusion, irritability; anorexia, weight loss
What are coenzymes?
They are complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity.
What do many coenzymes have as part of their structures?
B vitamins
What are some symptoms of ingesting excess vitamin C supplements?
gastrointestinal distress, diarrhea
How does ingesting excess vitamin C supplements affect misdiagnosis of diabetes?
large amounts excreted in the urine obscure the results of tests used to detect glucose or ketones in the diagnosis of diabetes - can give false positive or false negative
How does ingesting excess vitamin C supplements affect some medications?
interfere with anticlotting medications
How does ingesting excess vitamin C supplements lead to kidney stones?
in people with gout or a genetic abnormality that alters vitamin C's breakdown to its excretion products
How does ingesting excess vitamin C supplements affect people with iron overload?
too much iron released causes the kind of cellular damage typical of free radicals
What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk?
cardboard or opaque plastic containers
What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency?
inadequate absorption, not poor intake
Why does inadequate absorption of B12 occur?
a lack of hydrochloric acid or a lack of intrinsic factor
Why is hydrochloric acid needed for absorption of B12?
Without it, the vitamin is not released from the dietary proteins and so is not available for binding with the intrinsic factor.
Why is intrinsic factor needed for absorption of B12?
Without it, the vitamin cannot be absorbed.
In what capacity does vitamin C function?
serves as a cofactor helping a specific enzyme perform its job; acts as an antioxidant participating in more general ways
What is a cofactor?
a small, inorganic or organic substance that facilitates the action of an enzyme
What food makes the greatest contribution to riboflavin intake?
liver
Besides liver, what other foods are significant sources of riboflavin?
milk products (yogurt, cheese); whole-grain, fortified, or enriched grain products
How can Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome be treated?
with supplements of B1 (thiamin)
Milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which vitamins?
riboflavin, vitamin A
Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect its content of which vitamins?
riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B12, choline, and fat-soluble vitamins
Besides citrus fruits, what are some significant sources of Vitamin C?
broccoli, strawberries, red bell pepper, kiwi, Brussels sprouts
Approximately what percentage of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency?
80%
What are some known dangers of taking vitamin supplements?
toxicity, life-threatening misinformation, unknown needs, false sense of security, bioavailability and antagonistic reactions
Which mineral is involved in the transportation of lipids through the body's lymph and blood systems?
phosphorus
Why do certain green leafy vegetables have a very low calcium bioavailability?
presence of naturally occurring binders
For optimal utilization of calcium supplements, what dose should be taken?
500 mg several times a day
At what age do adults normally begin to lose bone mass?
30-40 yrs
When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?
Sodium and chloride
What has a high correlation with risk for osteoporosis?
being female, thing, and having anorexia nervosa
What is the major source of dietary sulfur?
protein
What enhances calcium absorption from the GI tract?
stomach acid, pregnancy, lactose
What is a major function of chloride?
helps maintain gastric acidity
What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?
Processed foods
Which people are at known risk for potassium depletion?
Those who ingest low amounts of fresh fruits/vegetables
In the body, what is water that resides between cells known as?
interstitial fluid
The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent what problem?
hypertension
What is the name given to the ingestion of nonnutritive substances?
Pica
What is a goitrogen?
A substance that interferes with the functioning of the thyroid gland
One of the chief functions of chromium is participation in the metabolism of what type of nutrient?
carbohydrates
Deficiency of which mineral is associated with retarded growth and sexual development in children?
Zinc
What food does NOT contain the MFP factor?
Spinach
Goiter is caused primarily by deficiency of what?
iodine
What factors are known to enhance the absorption of iron?
organic acids, MFP factor, ascorbic acid
What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride?
Public water
About how much iron is absorbed from a vegetarian diet compared with an omnivorous diet?
One-half as much
Commercially available zinc-containing lozenges are advertised as being effective against what?
the common cold
Iron deficiency in children is likely to result from a diet that overemphasizes which nutrient?
milk
The rare genetic disorders Menkes disease and Wilson's disease result from abnormal utilization of which nutrient?
copper
Gram for gram, which element provides the most energy?​
​fats
What best describes a double-blind experiment?​
Neither the subjects nor the researchers know which subjects are in each group.
According to the USDA Food Patterns, which protein foods should be most limited out of baked beans, peanut butter, ​skinless chicken, or shrimp?​
baked beans
What mineral is added to refined flours in the enrichment process?​
​iron
What is nutritional genomics?
the study of how a person's genes interact with nutrients
​Which foods are allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian?
​milk products and plant foods only
On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories daily?
​2,000
What is the benefit of using controls in an experiment?​
The groups are similar in all respects except for the treatment being tested.
What is a feature of the exchange list system?​
All foods are grouped according to their content of carbohydrate, protein, and fats.
Which standard covers the percentages of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases?
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
What is the AMDR for protein?
10-35 percent
What kind of food is nutrient dense?
provide more nutrients relative to kcalories
What does a person who eats the same foods day after day lack​?
​variety
​What are foods that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient combinations called?
​functional foods
What is an empty-kcalorie food?
one that contains energy and little or no proteins, vitamins, or minerals
By law, how often are the Dietary Guidelines for Americans reviewed and revised?
every 5 years
What is one purpose of both the Recommended Dietary Allowance and Adequate Intake?
setting nutrient goals for individuals
In the scientific method, what is a tentative solution to a problem called?
​hypothesis
What do food labels express?
the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the Daily Values
What is PubMed?
one of the most trustworthy sites used by scientists and others, which provides free access to more than 23 million abstracts of research papers published in scientific journals around the world
What is one characteristic of structure-function claims on food labels?​
They can be made without any FDA approval.
What are risk factors?
factors known to be related to a disease but not proven to be causal
In what food group would legumes be found?
​protein
Why was MyPlate created?
​illustrate the five food groups
What happens in a balanced diet?
foods that are rich in some nutrients do not crowd out foods that are rich in other nutrients
Restaurants with 20 or more locations must provide menu listings of what?
an item's kcalories, grams of saturated fat, and milligrams of sodium
What factor would most likely lead to a primary nutrient deficiency?
inadequate nutrient intake
Inspection of hair, eyes, skin, and posture is known as what part of the nutrition assessment component?
physical examination
What are the principles of diet planning?​
​adequacy, balance, kcalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety
What is the diet-planning principle of moderation?
providing enough, but not an excess, of a food
What are some reasons people become vegetarians?
values, religious reasons, environment, health
How are food choices influenced?
by habits, emotions, physical appearance, and ethnic background
What are some techniques that help identify nutrition quackery?
checking the credentials, analyzing the type of claim
Where can you find reliable sources of nutrition information?
peer-reviewed journals
When preparing meat, fish, and poultry, what steps can be taken to reduce the contribution of fat kcalories?
grilling, steaming, or roasting with little or no oil; removing fat or skin
epiglottis
prevents food from entering the windpipe when swallowing
ileocecal valve
controls the entry of chyme into the colon
enzyme
substance that helps make or break a chemical bond
hydrochloric acid
a component of gastric juice
gallbladder
organ that releases bile into the small intestine
liver
organ that synthesizes bile
villus
fingerlike projection of small intestinal lining
diffusion
absorption mechanism that does not require energy
hepatic vein
vessel that carries blood from liver to heart
hepatic portal vein
vessel that carries blood from GI tract to liver
water
nutrient with the highest body concentration
organic
most substances containing carbon-hydrogen bonds
protein
substance containing nitrogen
anthropometrics
measurement of physical characteristics
physical examination
inspection of skin, tongue, eyes, hair, and fingernails
balance
the principle of consuming a number of foods in proportion to each other
bran
part of grain richest in fiber
Name an example of a fortified food.
orange juice containing added calcium
Name an example of a functional food.
margarine containing plant sterols
FDA
agency that regulates food labeling
​Which monosaccharide is a component of all three dietary disaccharides?
​glucose
digestion
the process by which food is broken down into absorbable components
​What is the difference between the processes of nutrient absorption by simple diffusion versus active transport?
Nutrients absorbed by simple diffusion cross freely into intestinal cells, while nutrients absorbed by active transport move against their concentration gradient, which requires energy.
functional fiber
is extracted from plants and has a beneficial health effect
​What are ketone bodies formed from?
fat fragments
Name an example of a meal that will require a great amount of time for digestion.
​steak and French fries
peristalsis
wavelike contractions due to the action of circular and longitudinal muscles
​hydrolysis
digestive enzymes use water to break a molecule into smaller pieces
What is a typical response in people following a low-carbohydrate diet?​
Their total weight loss is about the same as in people on a low-fat diet.
​glycogen
the primary storage form of carbohydrate in the body
What is the typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose?​
Blood glucose levels that fall too low signal the release of glucagon.
What is the primary function of the intestinal microvilli?
transport nutrient molecules into the cells
When a typical body is at rest, what is the maximum amount of time stores of glycogen can provide energy to sustain the body?
1 day
Name an organ that does not secrete digestive enzymes?
​liver
​capillaries
small blood vessels where exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials takes place
​What is stevia?
​an herb-derived sweetener
What is the first organ to receive carbohydrates absorbed from the intestine?
​liver
glycemic index of foods
​a method of ranking foods according to their potential to increase blood glucose
The body's regulation of digestion, temperature, and blood pressure are examples of what process?
homeostasis
What does the lymphatic system do?
carries fats away from the intestines and fluids towards the heart
What should an individual suffering from constipation do?
​increase fiber intake
When is chyme released from the stomach?
when ​it is completely liquefied
What do sphincter muscles do?
They control the passage of food through the GI tract.
​What is a common result when a person with type 2 diabetes loses weight?
an increase in insulin sensitivity
Why do food manufacturers prefer to use high-fructose corn syrup instead of sugar?
Sugar is more expensive.
​What is the primary function of insulin?
to lower blood glucose levels
When the pancreatic juices mix with chyme in the small intestine, what is the pH of the resulting mixture?
approximately neutral
​According to most dietary guidelines, what percentage of the day's total energy intake should be furnished by carbohydrates?
45-65%
What is the chief purpose of the gallbladder?
to store bile
What is required for the assimilation of dietary fats?
bile
​A person with chronic diarrhea is at risk for what?
​dehydration
What are the Dietary Reference Intakes used for?
plan and evaluate diets for healthy people
A person who eats a bowl of oatmeal for breakfast every day is most likely making a food choice based on what?
​habit
Eating in response to negative emotions and stress can easily lead to what?
overweight and obesity
Inorganic nutrients are those that do not contain which element?
​carbon
essential nutrient
a nutrient needed by the body that must be supplied by foods
According to nutrition labeling laws, what two minerals must be listed on the package label as a percent Daily Value?​
calcium and iron
A food label ingredient list reads in the following order: wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in the smallest amount in the food?​
​cornstarch
What is a key recommendation associated with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020?
Meet the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans
According to the FDA, a food label that reads "improves memory" is an example of what?
structure-function claim
How do intestinal cells absorb nutrients?
through microvilli
What is the composition of sucrose?
glucose and fructose
What is a characteristic of carbohydrate information on food labels?​
The FDA uses the guideline of 60% of a 2000-kcalorie diet in setting the Daily Value for carbohydrate at 300 grams per day.
What are cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and lignin?
fibers
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...