Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition Review of Chapters 1-16
What is the major source of dietary sulfur?
What iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream?
Chromium deficiency is characterized by what?
What does a DEXA scan measure?
Name some protective factors for osteoporosis.
moderate alcohol intake; obesity; having African American heritage
What is known to enhance calcium absorption from the GI tract?
stomach acid, lactose, pregnancy
What is known to limit calcium absorption from the GI tract?
Keshan disease risk increases with a deficiency of what?
What is the function of MFP factor?
enhances iron absorption
What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?
What nutrient deficiency during pregnancy may give rise to a child with cretinism?
Goiter is caused primarily by a deficiency of what?
Which of the following foods are significant sources of oxalates?
spinach and sweet potatoes
To serve its function in oxygen delivery to body tissues, what must iron interact closely with?
copper and vitamin C
What is the major intracellular cation?
What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride?
What is a goitrogen?
a substance that interferes with the functioning of the thyroid gland
In the United States, iron is currently added to what foods?
breads and cereals
a measure of the rate at which a nutrient is absorbed and used by the body
the calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones
The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent what?
What is iron overload also known as?
Name some factors that are known to enhance the absorption of iron.
ascorbic acid, MFP factor, organic acids
the name given to the ingestion of nonnutritive substances
For optimal utilization of calcium supplements, what is the optimal dosage?
several times a day, in doses up to 500 mg
Name some factors that have a high correlation with risk for osteoporosis.
being thin, being female, having anorexia nervosa
The rare genetic disorders Menkes disease and Wilson's disease result from abnormal utilization of what?
What is the most common cause of iron overload?
a genetic predisposition
Abnormally low blood sodium concentration is known specifically as what?
After age, what is the next strongest risk factor for osteoporosis?
What is the major extracellular cation?
Margarine enriched with phytosterols is known to do what?
reduce blood cholesterol
Habitual intake of soft water is most likely to aggravate what condition?
Iron deficiency in children is likely to result from a diet that overemphasizes what?
In the body, water that resides between cells is known as what?
Magnesium is known to be involved in what?
prevention of dental caries, blood clotting, muscle contraction
How does antidiuretic hormone function?
It stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys.
A woman with a severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy may give birth to a child with what?
What is the most common cause of iodine deficiency?
insufficient intake of iodine from foods
Milk and milk products provide liberal amounts of which vitamin?
Name a characteristic of carotenoids in foods.
They are found in many vegetables and fruits.
Name some characteristics of thiamin nutrition.
recommended intakes are based primarily on participation in enzyme activity, severe deficiency may lead to edema, severe deficiency may occur without edema
If the diet contains precursor vitamin A, which tissues can use it to form vitamin A?
Name some consequences of ingesting excess vitamin C supplements.
they appear safe at levels up to 2000 mg/day, they frequently cause diarrhea, they interfere with laboratory urine tests for the diagnosis of diabetes
Which protein requires ascorbic acid for its formation?
Name some foods that a person seeking good sources of vitamin A would select.
apricots, sweet potatoes, liver
By law, what amount of folate (µg) must be added to 100 g of food products such as breads, flour, and rice?
In what system would the effects of a vitamin D deficiency be most readily observed?
Pernicious anemia results from a deficiency of what?
What form of tocopherol shows vitamin E activity in the human body?
In what chief capacity does vitamin K function?
A child with bowed legs is likely deficient in which vitamin?
The vitamin deficiency disease pellagra means what?
Name a major source of vitamin E in the diet?
What feature is shared by vitamins E and K?
supplements of either may interfere with anticlotting medications
Large doses of nicotinic acid result in what?
dilation of capillaries, increased HDL cholesterol, lowering of LDL cholesterol
Name some features of vitamin K in nutrition.
risk of deficiency is increased in people taking antibiotics for prolonged periods, good food sources are plants of the cabbage family, infants frequently require a supplement at birth
What is a chief function of the B vitamins?
Approximately what percentage of alcoholics exhibit thiamin deficiency?
Which of the following is characteristic of the tocopherols?
They are usually found in foods high in polyunsaturated fats.
Beriberi results from a deficiency of what?
Methylcobalamin is a coenzyme form of what?
If someone is looking to increase dietary sources of vitamin C, but has a strong dislike for all citrus fruits, what foods would you recommend?
brussels sprouts, broccoli, strawberries
In what capacity does vitamin C function?
cofactor in collagen formation
A deficiency of what vitamin produces a characteristic cracking and redness at the corners of the mouth?
Name a source of vitamin B12.
How is vitamin E thought to play a role in reducing the risk of heart disease?
It slows oxidation of low-density lipoproteins.
A person who shuns dairy and spends most of her time indoors would likely benefit from a supplement of what?
What type of container is best for protecting the riboflavin content of milk?
What is the most likely reason for the development of a vitamin B12 deficiency?
Name some characteristics of vitamin D nutrition.
excessive intake may lead to mineral deposits in the kidneys, fortified milk is the major dietary source in the U.S. population, deficient intake may lead to altered bone composition
How many different forms of vitamin A are active in the body?
Which of the following can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?
exposure to sunlight
What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food?
the amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body
What population group has the highest risk for vitamin K deficiency?
Biotin can be synthesized by what?
Name some difficulties in obtaining the recommended amounts of vitamin D from the diet.
only a few foods contain vitamin D naturally; meeting vitamin D needs can be difficult without adequate sunshine, fortification or supplementation
Name some nonfortified sources of vitamin D.
egg yolks and oily fish
the iron in food which is bound to hemoglobin and myoglobin proteins
Name some food sources of heme iron.
found only in red meat, fish and poultry
How much heme iron is absorbed in the body?
iron that is not bound to proteins
How much nonheme iron is absorbed?
17 %; dietary factors may influence absorption
Where is nonheme iron found?
both plant and animal based food
What inhibits absorption of nonheme iron?
phytates, vegetable proteins and polyphenols
What does the DASH eating plan emphasize?
potassium rich fruits, vegetables and low fat dairy products; includes whole grains, nuts, poultry and fish; calls for reduction of sodium, red and processed meats, sweets and sugar containing beverages
Why is the DASH diet thought to be effective?
high intake of potassium rich fruits and vegetables and calcium rich low fat diary products
Name some risk factors for osteoporosis.
age, sex, physical activity and body weight, hormones, genetics, smoking and alcohol
Name 6 different functions for water in the body.
carries nutrients and waste, participates in metabolic reactions, serves as a solvent, acts as a lubricant and cushion, aids in regulation of body temperature, maintains blood volume
Absorption efficiency of vitamin D supplements is markedly improved when they are taken when?
with the largest meal of the day - improves absorption, resulting in a 50% increase in blood levels
What is associated with the condition known as xerosis?
abnormal drying of the skin and mucous membranes; a sign of Vitamin A deficiency
Keratinization is the result of what?
vitamin A deficiency
The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may be treated with supplements of what?
vitamin B1 (thiamin)
Cooking a food in liberal amounts of water is least likely to affect its content of what?
Which of the following minerals is involved in the transportation of lipids through the body's lymph and blood systems?
Certain green leafy vegetables have a very low calcium bioavailability due to the presence of what?
naturally occurring binders
At what age do adults normally begin to lose bone mass?
When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?
sodium and chloride
Which of the following is a major function of chloride?
helps maintain gastric acidity
One of the chief functions of chromium is participation in the metabolism of what?
Deficiency of which mineral is associated with retarded growth and sexual development in children?
About how much iron is absorbed from a vegetarian diet compared with an omnivorous diet?
1/2 as much
Commercially available zinc-containing lozenges are advertised as being effective against what?
the common cold
The oils found in walnuts, soybeans, flaxseed, and wheat germ represent a good source of what?
preformed linolenic acid
What is a feature of catabolic reactions?
involve release of energy
the synthesis and degradation of body proteins
Name some major sources of cholesterol.
hamburger, meat, shrimp
What is a major feature of the Mediterranean diet?
a liberal intake of olive oil
Name some diseases that are known to be linked to excessive intake of fats.
heart disease, obesity, cancer
What organ is the major site for gluconeogenesis?
What type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil?
tissue swelling that results from water accumulating between cells
What compounds may be synthesized from cholesterol?
sex hormones, vitamin D, bile
What compound can not be synthesized from cholesterol?
Name a food with a high percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form.
Name a food with a high percentage of its fat in saturated form.
What is a major cause of rancidity of lipids in foods?
exposure to heat and oxygen
Name some characteristics of hydrogenated oils.
they lower HDL and raise LDL cholesterol in the body; some of their fatty acids change shape from cis to trans; they are stored in adipose tissue; products containing them become rancid later, contributing to a longer shelf life
What is the approximate kcal content of one pound of body fat?
In comparison to the composition of carbohydrates and fats, which element found in proteins makes them unique?
How do lipids differ?
in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of double bonds
What function does a buffer perform?
helps maintain a constant pH
What process results in the hardening of an egg when it is exposed to heat?
In comparison to a low-density lipoprotein, what does a high-density lipoprotein contain?
A low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of what?
How is soluble fiber in the diet thought to help lower blood cholesterol level?
It enhances excretion of bile leading to increased cholesterol turnover.
If the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will be the course of action?
Protein synthesis will be limited.
Bile is known to assist in the absorption of what?
What digestive enzyme would be most affected in people who are unable to produce hydrochloric acid?
lipids that are liquid at room temperature
dispensable amino acid
amino acid that can be synthesized by the body
The body's need for water increases on a diet high in what?
Name a good source of omega-3 fats.
What sometimes happens to the double bond configurations of oils that are partially hydrogenated?
changes one or more of its double bond configurations from cis to trans
What is a common feature of plant sterols?
inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol
What type of protein would the body make in order to heal a wound?
What does the body's amino acid pool consists of?
both essential and nonessential amino acids
What does a high risk of heart attack correlate with?
high blood levels of low-density lipoproteins
Which of the following defines a coenzyme?
an organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme
How many different kinds of amino acids make up proteins?
A person who is starving is losing what?
glycogen, protein, and fat
lipids that are solid at room temperature
Name a food that contains a low level of cholesterol per serving.
What does an aerobic reaction require?
fatty acids with hydrogens on the opposite sides of the double bonds These fats behave more like saturated fats, increasing blood cholesterol and the risk of heart disease.
Name some common food sources of trans-fatty acids.
What is the significance of trans-fatty acids in the diet?
behave more like saturated fats, increasing blood cholesterol and the risk of heart disease
Where do trans-fatty acids typically occur?
in partially hydrogenated foods/fats.
essential amino acid
There are 9 which the body can't make or make enough of and therefore must be taken in via the diet.
nonessential amino acid
The body can synthesize these amino acids for itself and therefore they do not need to be taken in via the diet.
Sometimes a nonessential amino acid can become essential under special circumstances.
Name 5 guidelines for identifying a fad diet.
sounds too good to be true; recommends using a single food as the key to the program; promises of quick and easy weight loss; eliminates an entire food group; guarantees unrealistic outcomes; requires the purchase of a special product; bases evidence for effectiveness on testimonials
basal metabolic rate
the rate of energy used for metabolism under specific conditions
What would a clinician advise someone to help lower his/her risk of heart disease?
lose weight as this can lower both blood cholesterol and blood pressure
What is the leading cause of premature deaths?
What is second only to smoking in causing premature deaths?
Why do fad diets often produce weight loss, at least initially?
They are designed to limit energy intake to around 1200 kcal/day.
the feeling of satisfaction resulting from consumption of a meal
If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, who will be heavier?
The dancer will be heavier because she has more muscle mass.
What is the best approach to weight loss?
reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
What is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people?
generation of heat
Because obesity apparently has many causes, even in a single individual, what seems to be the best approach?
Where is visceral fat chiefly stored?
around the abdominal organs
What primarily determines a person's susceptibility to obesity?
heredity and environment
According to much research, what is a characteristic of excess body fat that is distributed primarily around the abdomen?
It is associated with increased mortality for both sexes.
Waist circumference can best be used to assess what?
abdominal fat stores
What kind of statement would suggest that a diet plan is an unsound, fad diet?
"Once you complete this 6-month plan, you'll never have to diet again."
What is an important aid in any weight-loss diet program?
increase physical activity
Name a food that has a great power to suppress hunger.
Name a significant factor associated with interpretation of body composition values.
It is possible that muscular people may be classified as overweight.
a popular eating plan that promises quick weight loss
Name a characteristic of the eating pattern of people with bulimia nervosa.
Binge eating typically occurs after a period of strict dieting.
Name a feature of weight-loss remedies.
Dietary supplements are not necessarily tested for safety or effectiveness.
Name a feature of the body mass index.
It correlates with disease risks.
Name some characteristics of obese people.
they do not maintain their weight losses; they often have feelings of rejection; it is viewed as a sign of robust health in many cultures
Name some typical foods chosen by a person with bulimia nervosa during a binge.
ice cream; cookies; bread
According to much research, in what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease?
What is the principal reason that appetite is turned off immediately after a person finishes an intense workout?
Glucose and fatty acids are still abundant in the blood.
As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight in men?
body mass index
an index of a person's weight in relation to height body mass index
What is the primary reason for not including the value for adaptive thermogenesis when calculating energy requirements?
It is too variable to measure.
What is another name for intra-abdominal fat?
A high risk of weight-related health problems is seen in women whose waist circumference begins to exceed what measurement?
What is another name for clinically severe obesity?
Name some characteristics of the results of weight-loss surgery.
deficiencies of vitamins and minerals are common in the long term; hunger is suppressed; dramatic improvements are seen in blood lipids, diabetes, and blood pressure; lifelong medical supervision is necessary
Name an example of a behavior modification technique for weight control.
keep a record of your eating habits
Research in obese people seems to show that there is less susceptibility to health problems provided that the excess body fat is distributed where?
around the hips and thighs
What are some known health risks for being underweight?
giving birth to unhealthy infants; infertility in women; increased cancer-induced wasting
Name some characteristics of food portion sizes.
they have increased most notably at fast-food restaurants compared with conventional eating establishments; they have increased in general and this change parallels the increasing prevalence of obesity; they are both high in fat and large in size at restaurants; reducing energy density has a bigger impact than reducing portion size as a means of lowering total energy intake
According to body mass index values, what fraction of the U.S. adult population is considered overweight or obese?
Name a characteristic of most fad diets.
They limit food choices, thereby reducing energy intake.
How does television watching contribute to obesity?
it gives high exposure to energy-dense foods featured in the commercial advertisements; it promotes inactivity; it promotes between-meal snacking
Name an example of a group that has a high metabolic rate?
the process whereby messenger RNA is made from a DNA template
n the metabolism of amino acids for energy, what is the fate of the amino group?
The amino acid is deaminated - stripped of their nitrogen-containing amino groups. Two products result: ammonia (NH3) and the carbon structure without its amino group - often a keto acid.
The disease phenylketonuria is related chiefly to abnormal metabolism of what?
the amino acid phenylalanine to tyrosine
Where does protein digestion begin in the human body?
Proteins are crushed and moistened in the mouth, but the real action begins in the stomach.
Which food protein has the best assortment of essential amino acids for the human body?
foods derived from animals (meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, and milk and milk products
Which structural feature of fatty acids determines their susceptibility to spoilage by oxygen?
Polyunsaturated fats spoil most readily because their double bonds are unstable.
Studies show that a 1 percent increase in dietary saturated fatty acids will raise the risk of heart disease by what percentage?
What part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?
What lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery?
What is a characteristic of farm-raised fish?
lower amounts of mercury and lower amounts of omega-3 fatty acids
When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and what happens in the energy in the molecules?
stored as glycogen and fat
The feeling of satiety from weight-loss diets is best achieved by diets rich in what?
What is the major cause of insulin resistance?
excess body weight
What can the body use to synthesize vitamin D?
with the help of sunlight, from a precursor that the body makes from cholesterol
What kind of vitamin is Vitamin K?
What are some other names of Vitamin K?
phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2), menadione (in supplements)
What are the chief functions of Vitamin K?
synthesis of blood-clotting proteins and bone proteins
What are some significant sources of Vitamin K?
bacterial synthesis in the digestive tract; liver; dark green, leafy vegetables, cabbage-type vegetables; milk
What is a symptom of Vitamin K deficiency?
What are some symptoms of Vitamin K toxicity?
What population group is at highest risk for osteomalacia?
adult women with calcium and Vitamin D deficiencies
What is osteomalacia?
a bone disease characterized by softening of the bones; symptoms include bending of the spine and bowing of the legs
What are some significant sources of the retinol form of Vitamin A?
What enables much of the world's population to maintain adequate vitamin D status?
enough time in the sun
What feature is shared by vitamins E and K?
dark green, leafy vegetables provide significant sources; hemorrhaging is a deficiency (K) and toxicity (E) effect
When is absorption efficiency of vitamin D supplements markedly improved?
when taken with the largest meal of the day
What is xerosis?
abnormal drying of the skin and mucous membranes
How does xerosis lead to blindness?
At first, the cornea becomes dry and hard because of inadequate mucus production (xerosis). Then xerosis quickly progresses to keratomalacia, the softening of the cornea that leads to irreversible blindness.
Xerosis is a sign of what?
vitamin A deficiency
Keratinization is a sign of what?
vitamin A deficiency
How does keratinization happen?
On the body's outer surface, the epithelial cells change shape and begin to secrete the protein keratin. The skin becomes dry, rough, and scaly as lumps of keratin accumulate.
What is keratin?
the hard, inflexible protein of hair and nails
Increasing the amount of polyunsaturated fats in the diet increases the need for which vitamin?
vitamin E - prevents the oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acids
What is another name for thiamin?
What are some chief functions of thiamin?
part of coenzyme TPP (thiamin pyrophosphate) used in energy metabolism
What are some significant sources of thiamin?
whole-grain, fortified, or enriched grain products; moderate amounts in all nutritious food; pork
How is thiamin easily destroyed?
What is the deficiency disease of thiamin?
beriberi (wet, with edema; dry, with muscle wasting)