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Lizzie Borden

spinster who was the central figure in the hatchet murders of her father and stepmother; defied view of women

"Triumph of Democracy" (Carnegie)

(1886) document that praised the accomplishments of America but ignored the poor of America

Nicodemus, Kansas

successful black community formed during black migration westward

Paul Laurence Dunbar

seminal African American poet; appealed to white audience by creating positive images of black life

"We Wear the Mask" (Dunbar)

(1896) poem that describes the harsh reality of the black race in the US

Booker T. Washington

major black leader b/c of sponsorship by powerful whites; cooperation with whites and industrial education only way to overcome racism in long run

Atlanta Exposition Address (Washington, 1895)

address given at the 1895 Atlanta Exposition; carved out a defined and subordinate "place" for blacks

Five Civilized Tribes

five Native American nations (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole); considered civilized by original Anglo-European settlers

Plains Indians

Native American societies inhabiting region from Dakotas to Texas

Fort Laramie Treaty

agreement that moved thousands of Plains Indians to reservations in South Dakota in 1867

Chief Sitting Bull

Sioux leader; involved in major victory at the Battle of the Little Bighorn against Lt. Custer at Custer's Last Stand


Latter Day Saint Movement; followers emigrated to Utah Territory in 1847 and began to openly practice plural marriage

Custer's Last Stand

(1876) Battle of Little Bighorn; battle between Indian tribes against the forces of Lt. Col. Custer; enraged American public against Indians

George Armstrong Custer

United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars; lost in the Battle of the Little Bighorn

Dawes Severalty Act (1887)

law intended to "civilize" Indians by distributing Oklahoma territory to individuals

Pacific Railroad Act

(1862) authorized extensive land grants in West and issuance of U.S. Government Bonds to railroad companies in order to construct a transcontinental railroad

Homestead Act (1862)

gave an applicant land title to up to 160 acres of undeveloped federal land; required three steps: file an application, improve the land, and file for deed of title

Timber Culture Act

(1873) allowed homesteaders to get another 160 acres of land if they planted trees on one-fourth of the land

Desert Land Act

(1877) individuals could apply for a desert-land entry to reclaim, irrigate, and cultivate arid and semiarid public lands

United States v. Reynolds

(1879) declared plural marriages unlawful

Edmunds-Tucker Act

(1887) dissolved the church corporation and put its properties and funds into control of the courts

Curtis Act (1898)

dissolved the Indian Territory and abolished tribal governments

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