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EMT 152 Mid-term
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Terms in this set (70)
Which of the following is NOT a component of the cardiovascular system?
Lungs: Components of the cardiovascular system include the heart, blood vessels. Lungs are a component of the respiratory system.
Perfusion is MOST accurately defined as
Circulation of blood within an organ with sufficient amounts of oxygen
A man involved in a motorcycle crash has multiple abrasions and lacerations. Which of the following injuries has the HIGHEST treatment priority?
1" laceration to the thigh with spurting, bright red blood.
Which of the following sets of vital signs is LEAST indicative of internal bleeding?
BP of 140/90, Pulse rate, 58 beats/min, Respirations 8 breaths/min
When caring for a patient with internal bleeding, the EMT must first:
take appropriate standard precautions
The quickest and MOST effective way to control external bleeding from an extremity is:
direct pressure and elevation.
When applying a tourniquet to an amputated arm, the EMT should:
avoid applying the tourniquet over a joint
A 70-year-old man is experiencing a severe nosebleed. When you arrive, you find him leaning over a basin, which contains an impressive amount of blood. He has a history of coronary artery disease, diabetes, and migraine headaches. His BP is 180/100 and his heart rate is 100 beats/min. Which of the following is the MOST likely contributing factor to his nosebleed?
his blood pressure
When caring for a patient with severe epistaxis, the MOST effective way to prevent aspiration of blood is to:
tilt the patients head forward while he or she is leaning forward
Controlling internal bleeding requires:
surgery in a hospital
A young male was struck in the forearm with a baseball and complains of pain to the area. Slight swelling and ecchymosis are present, but no external bleeding. Which type of injury does this describe?
A compression injury that is severe enough to cut off blood flow below the injury is called
A 45-year-old convenience store clerk was shot in the right anterior chest during a robbery. Your assessment reveals that the wound has blood bubbling from it every time the patient breathes. Your MOST immediate action should be to:
Prevent air from entering the wound
What effects will the application of an ice have on a hematoma?
Vasoconstriction and decreased bleeding
The primary reason for applying a sterile dressing to an open injury is to:
control external bleeding
The MOST appropriate way to dress and bandage an open abdominal wound with a loop of bowel protruding from it is to:
apply a moist, sterile dressing to the wound and secure with an occlusive dressing
A 22-year-old male was attacked by a rival gang and has a large knife impaled in the center of his chest. Your assessment reveals that he is apneic and pulseless. You should:
Carefully remove the knife, control any bleeding, begin CPR, and transport
Which of the following is considered a severe burn?
5% full-thickness burn with a fracture
A 5-year-old boy was burned when he pulled a barbecue grill over on himself. He has partial- and full-thickness burns to his anterior chest and circumferentially on both arms. What percentage of his body surface area has been burned?
Which of the following statements regarding chemical burns is FALSE?
prior to removing a dry chemical, flush the area with sterile water
Which of the following statements regarding the "Adam's apple" is FALSE?
It is inferior to the cricoid cartilage
The globe of the eye is also called the:
When a person is looking at an object up close, the pupils should:
When caring for a chemical burn to the eye, the EMT should:
prevent contamination of the opposite eye
Which of the following signs is LEAST indicative of a head injury?
pupillary constriction to bright light
The purpose of the eustachian tube is to:
equalize pressure in the middle ear when external pressure changes
When caring for a patient with facial trauma, the EMT should be MOST concerned with:
The presence of subcutaneous emphysema following trauma to the face and throat is MOST suggestive of:
Crushing tracheal injury
A 21-year-old male has a large laceration to his neck. When you assess him, you note that bright red blood is spurting from the left side of his neck. You should immediately:
place your gloved hand over the wound.
Which of the following mechanisms of injury would MOST likely cause a crushing injury of the larynx and/or trachea?
attempted suicide by hanging
The brain, a part of the central nervous system (CNS), is divided into the:
cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem
As you are assessing a 24-year-old man with a large laceration to the top of his head, you should recall that:
blood loss from a scalp laceration may contribute to hypovolemic shock in adults
A patient who experiences an immediate loss of consciousness followed by a lucid interval has a(n):
A 44-year-old man was struck in the back of the head and was reportedly unconscious for approximately 30 seconds. He complains of a severe headache and "seeing stars," and states that he regained his memory shortly before your arrival. His presentation is MOST consistent with a(n):
A young male was involved in a motor vehicle accident and experienced a closed head injury. He has no memory of the events leading up to the accident, but remembers that he was going to a birthday party. What is the correct term to use when documenting his memory loss?
A distraction injury to the cervical spine would MOST likely occur following:
During immobilization of a patient with a possible spinal injury, manual stabilization of the head must be maintained until:
the patient is fully immobilized on a long backboard.
Your patient is a 21-year-old male who has massive face and head trauma after being assaulted. He is lying supine, is semiconscious, and has blood in his mouth. You should:
manually stabilize his head.log roll him onto his side, and suction his mouth.
A man is found slumped over the steering wheel, unconscious and making snoring sounds, after an automobile accident. His head is turned to the side and his neck is flexed. You should:
manually stabilize his head and move it to a neutral, in-line position.
You should NOT remove an injured football player's helmet if:
the face guard can easily be removed and there is no airway compromise
When the chest impacts the steering wheel during a motor vehicle crash with rapid deceleration, the resulting injury that kills almost one third of patients, usually within seconds, is:
Signs and symptoms of a chest injury include all of the following, EXCEPT:
During your assessment of a patient who was stabbed, you see an open wound to the left anterior chest. Your MOST immediate action should be to:
cover the wound with an occlusive dressing
When caring for a patient with signs of a pneumothorax, your MOST immediate concern should be:
What purpose does a one-way "flutter valve" serve when used on a patient with an open pneumothorax?
It allows the release of air trapped in the pleural space.
Signs of a cardiac tamponade include all of the following, EXCEPT:
collapsed jugular veins.
A patient experienced a severe compression to the chest when trapped between a vehicle and a brick wall. You suspect traumatic asphyxia due to the hemorrhage into the sclera of his eyes and which other sign?
Cyanosis in the face and neck
A 14-year-old baseball player was hit in the chest with a line drive. He is in cardiac arrest. Which of the following is the most likely explanation?
Paradoxical chest movement is typically seen in patients with:
a flail chest
A 40-year-old man, who was the unrestrained driver of a car that hit a tree at a high rate of speed, struck the steering wheel with his chest. He has a large bruise over the sternum and an irregular pulse rate of 120 beats/min. You should be MOST concerned that he:
has injured his myocardium
Skeletal muscle is also referred to as:
You respond to a soccer game for a 16-year-old male with severe ankle pain. When you deliver him to the hospital, the physician tells you that he suspects a sprain. This means that
stretching or tearing of the ligaments with partial or temporary dislocation of the bone ends has occurred.
A young male has a musculoskeletal injury and is unresponsive. You will NOT be able to assess:
Sensory and motor functions
The purpose of splinting a fracture is to:
prevent motion of bony fragments
A motorcyclist crashed his bike and has closed deformities to both of his midshaft femurs. He is conscious, but restless; his skin is cool and clammy; and his radial pulses are rapid and weak. The MOST appropriate splinting technique for this patient involves:
securing him to a long backboard
To effectively immobilize a fractured clavicle, you should apply a(n):
sling and swathe
A patient tripped, fell, and landed on her elbow. She is in severe pain and has obvious deformity to her elbow. You should:
manually stabilize her injury
When treating an open extremity fracture, you should:
dress the wound before applying a splint
Which of the following musculoskeletal injuries has the GREATEST risk for shock due to blood loss?
A patient injured her knee while riding a bicycle. She is lying on the ground, has her left leg flexed, is in severe pain, and cannot move her leg. Your assessment reveals obvious deformity to her left knee. Distal pulses are present and strong. The MOST appropriate treatment for her injury involves:
Splinting the leg in the position in which it was found
The first stage of labor ends when
the presenting part of the baby is visible
A 23-year-old woman, who is 24 weeks pregnant with her first baby, complains of edema to her hands, a headache, and visual disturbances. When you assess her vital signs, you note that her blood pressure is 160/94 mm Hg. She is MOST likely experiencing:
You are transporting a woman who is 8 months pregnant. To prevent supine hypotensive syndrome, how should you position this patient?
on her left side
Immediately after delivery of the infant's head, you should:
check the position of the umbilical cord
Upon delivery of the baby's head, you note that the umbilical cord is wrapped around its neck. You should:
make one attempt to slide the cord over the head
The need for and extent of newborn resuscitation is based on:
respiratory effort, heart rate and color
The 1-minute Apgar score of a newborn reveals that the baby has a heart rate of 90 beats/min, a pink body but blue hands and feet, and rapid respirations. The baby cries when the soles of its feet are flicked and resists attempts to straighten its legs. You should assign an Apgar score of:
The MOST effective way to prevent cardiopulmonary arrest in a newborn is to:
ensure adequate oxygenation and ventilation
While assisting a woman in labor, you visualize her vaginal area and see an arm protruding from her vagina. She tells you that she feels the urge to push. You should:
cover the arm with a sterile towel and transport immediately
A newborn is considered to be "term" if it is born after ____ weeks and before ____ weeks.
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