Chapter 3 Ecosystem Ecology
All about the environment of the ecosystem.
Terms in this set (53)
Identify Two Economic Impacts of the deforestation of Haiti's trees
Mango trees provided 70 to 150 dollars worth of mangoes annually and the US Agency for International Development has funded the planting of 60 million trees.
a location on earth distinguished by its abiotic(non-living) and biotic (living) components
What are some abiotic components of an ecosystem?
Some abiotic components of an ecosystem include sunlight,temperature,soil,water,pH, and nutrients.
Some biotic components of an ecosystem is plants, bacteria, algae, and protists.
What are some biotic components of an ecosystem?
6H20+6CO2+Light Energy yields C6H12O6+6CO2
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
The flow of energy and matter in an ecosystem is the sun then the plants then the herbivores/omnivores then the carnivores then detrivores then the plants
What is the general flow of energy and matter in an ecosystem?
What does the second law of thermodynamics state?
It states that the amount of energy stays the same but the ability to do work diminishes.
6CO2 and C6H12O6
What molecules are lost to the environment in photosynthesis?
What molecules are lost to cellular respiration?
6CO2,6H20, and Energy
NPP=GPP-respiration by producers
What is the equation for NPP?
What percentage of GPP is lost to energy?
What percentage of GPP supports the growth and production of producers?
How much of solar energy striking producers is captured by phosynthesis (GPP)?
What percentage of energy gets transferred up each trophic level? (ecological efficiency)
an average of about 10% across all ecosystems
the combination of all ecosystems on earth that forms the biosphere and where life resides
What is the biosphere?
Which of the following is not an example of an abiotic component of an ecosystem?
d. distinct boundaries
Which of the following is not a characteristic of ecosystem?
Phosphorus and Potassium
Which biogeochemical cycles does not have a gaseous component?
At which trophic level are eagles that consume fish that eat algae?
At which trophic level do organgisms use a process that produces oxygen as a waste product?
At which trophic level are dragonflies that consume mosquitoes that feed on herbivourous mammals?
An ecosystem has an ecological efficiency of 10 percent. If the producer level contains 10000 kilocalories of energy , how much energy does the tertiary consumer level contain?
b) 10 kcal
Research at Hubbard Brook showed that stream nitrate concentrations in the two watersheds were _____ before clear-cutting, and that after one watershed was clear-cut, its stream nitrate concentration was ________
After a severe drought, the productivity in an ecosystem took many years to return to pre-drought conditions. This observation indicates that the ecosystem has
b) low resilience
Different ecosystems respond to disturbances (both natural and anthropogenic)differently.A resistant ecosystem is one that experiences a little change in flows of energy and matter after a disturbance. A resilient ecosystem is one that returns rapidly to its original state after disturbance. Species diversity tends to be highest at intermediate levels of disturbance.
Explain how ecosystems respond to natural and anthropogenic disturbances.
Discuss the values of ecosystems and how humans depend on them
Ecosystems have a variety of instrumental values that can directly affect humans. Ecosystem services include provisions that humans can use directly, such as food and medicine; regulation services that prevent drastic changes in environmental conditions; support systems that provide important services such as pollination and water filtration;resilience that allows ecosystems to continue functioning despite disturbances;and cultural services,including aesthetic value. The intrinsic value of ecosystems derives from the philosophical or religious idea that ecosystems are inherently valuable and that we have a moral obligation to preserve them.
What is the difference between resilience and resistance?
Resilience is an ecosystem's ability to bounce back to its current state after disturbance while resistance is a measurement of how much that disturbance can affect the flow of energy and matter
What is ecosystems resilience dependent on?
Ecosystem resilience depends on specific interactions of the biogeochemical and hydrologic cycle.
Plants take in Nitrogen (biotic factor) and Man made pollution adds to the Nitrogen ( abiotic factor).
What are some abiotic and biotic factors of the Nitrogen cycle?
What is the non-usable form of nitrogen?
It is a series of processes by which Nitrogen and its compounds are interconverted in the environment and in living organisms including nitrogen fixation and decomposition.
what is the nitrogen cycle?
What would be two human impacts of the hydrologic cycle?
1)Paving over land surfaces to build roads, businesses, and homes. This reduces the amount of percolation ( to pass through or to cause to pass through a porous substance) that takes place in an given area.
2) Diverting water from one area to another to provide water for drinking,irrigation, and industrial uses reduces the amount of water evaporated.
It allows autotrophs to perform photosynthesis which provides heterotrophs with food. It also gives the soil moistness which aids in plant growth and provides organisms with food.
Why is the hydrologic cycle important?
What happens once the water has fallen on earth?
It is taken up by the plants or runs off allong the surfaces.
Transpiration is the release of water from their leaves into the atmosphere while evapotranspiration is the combined amoutn of evaporation and transpiration and this release of water.
What is the difference between transpiration and evapotranspiration?
Why is evapotranspiration important?
It is important for crop maintenance. It also is responsible for 15% of the atmosphere's water vapor, without the input of that amount of water vapor clouds would not form and precipitation would never falll.
Hubbard Brook is a valuable study area because it has been studied since 1962 and has since then monitored the hydrological and biogeochemical cycles of six watersheds at hubbard brooks, ranging in size 12 to 43 hectares (ha). This study demonstrates the importance of plants regulating the cycling of nutrients and the consequences of not allowing new vegetation to grow when a forest is cut.
What does the Hubbard Brook study indicate and why is it valuable?
What does the intermediate disturbances hypothesis state?
It states that ecosystems experiencing intermediate levels of disturbances are more diverse than those with high or low disturbance levels.
Humans combust any type of fossil fuel ( oil, coal, and natural gas) which releases CO2 and water molecules into the air and affect the carbon cycle.
What are the human impacts of the carbon cycle?
What percentage of CO2 is released by humans?
Why is the nitrogen cycle essential to life on earth?
It allows organisms to reproduce and grow.
The transportation of dissolved molecules through the soil via groundwater.
What is a watershed?
All land in a given landscape that drains into a particular stream,river, lake, or wetland
Fix- Nitrogen Fixation Ammonia (NH3)
N itrification Nitrates/Nitrites(NO3,NO2)
A ssimilation Proteins (DNA,RNA,Aminoacids)
A mmmonification Ammonia (NH3)
D entrification Nitrogen (N2)
Write down the products and processes of the Nitrogen Cycle?
Why is pottasium important?
- limiting nutrient
-lack of strong charge makes pottasium easily leached out of soil
-Plants need it to photosynthesize.
-very strong charge
-not easily leached out of soil
Why is Mg important?
Why is calcium important?
It has a cell wall.
It stimulates leaf and root development
It is also a limiting nutrient
Why is sulfate and sulfur dioxide important?
What are some human impacts of pottasium?
Farmers apply pottasium rich fertilizer that leaches into water sources and contaminates it.
What are some human impacts of magnesium?
mining operations increase magnesium in soil and water
Mining increases the amount of calcium in water
What are some human impacts of calcium?
What are some human impacts of sulfate and sulfure dioxide?
Burning fossil fuels increases the amoutn of sulfur in the atmospher creating acid rain (SO2+H2O)
2.3% is the average earth surface content
How much of earth contains potassium?