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APUSH - Ch. 1 - Colliding Worlds - 1450-1600 - Henretta
Terms in this set (28)
tribute (p. 8)
(n.) something done or given to show thanks or respect; a payment (similar to taxes)
matriarchy (p. 15)
A society ruled or controlled by women
animism (p. 17)
Most prevalent in Africa and the Americas, doctrine in which the world is seen as being infused with spiritual and even supernatural powers.
patriarchy (p. 18)
form of social organization in which the father rules the family or tribe, descent being traced through the father
peasants (p. 18)
farm workers who lived in small villages surrounded by fields farmed cooperatively by different families.
primogeniture (p. 18)
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
republic (p. 19)
states that had no prince or king, but were governed by merchant coalitions
civic humanism (p. 20)
An ideology celebrated by many rich merchants in Italian city-states that preached public virtue and serving one's state for the greater good. They believed educated men should be active in the political affairs of their city.
Renaissance (p. 20)
A period of great cultural and artistic change that began in Italy around 1350 and spread throughout Europe.
guilds (p. 20)
An organization of individuals in the same business/occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members. (Women were allowed to work in some guilds)
Christianity (p. 21)
Religion based on the teachings of Jesus. According to Christian teaching, Jesus is the son of God, placed on Earth to teach people how to live according to God's plan
heresy (p. 22)
(n) an opinion different from accepted belief; the denial of an idea that is generally held sacred
Islam (p. 22)
A monotheistic religion based on the belief that there is one God, Allah, and that Muhammad was Allah's prophet. Islam is based in the ancient city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of Muhammad.
Crusades (p. 22)
Holy wars sponsored by the pope for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslims
predestination (p. 22)
John Calvin's belief that God had complete foreknowledge of events and marked certain people for heaven and the rest for hell
Protestant Reformation (p. 22)
A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches.
Counter-Reformation (p. 22)
The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic revival beginning with the Council of Trent (1545-1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation.
trans-Saharan trade (p. 23)
concentrated on women and children to be sold as household slaves in North Africa, also used to trade spices, silk and ivory, desert limited extent but was made better by camel and caravan, Ghana, Mali, and Songhay were important trade spots, facilitated spread of Islam to sub-Saharan Africa
reconquista (p. 31)
The centuries-long Christian "reconquest" of Spain from the Muslims. The Reconquista culminated in 1492 with the conquest of the last Muslim stronghold, Granada.
Hiawatha (p. 13)
Legendary Native American leader and founder of the Iroquois confederacy. He was a follower of the Great Peacemaker, a prophet and spiritual leader, who proposed unification of the Iroquois (who shared similar languages). Was instrumental in persuading the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondaga, Oneidas, and Mohawks to accept the Great Peacemaker's vision and band together.
Martin Luther (p. 22)
(1483-1546) Theologian and religious reformer who started the Protestant Reformation with his 95 Theses which protested church corruption, namely the sale of indulgences; He didn't plan on starting a new religion, he only wanted to reform the Church; his actions led to many new sects of Christianity, religious wars across Europe, a decrease in the power of the Roman Catholic Church and an increase in the power of monarchs
Mansa Musa (p. 23)
Ruler of Mali (r.1312-1337 CE) who made a hajj to Mecca; on the way there, he spread enormous amounts of gold showing the wealth of Mali; on the way back, he brought back education and Islamic culture.
Vasco de Gama (p. 29)
Reached India by rounding the Cape of Good Hope in southern Africa and then heading north to India. His success made Portugal a wealth nation throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Christopher Columbus (p. 31)
An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492. He made three other journeys until the time of his death in 1503.
Hernan Cortes (p. 34)
A conquistador who in 1519 led six hundred men to Mexico to take the Aztec Empire . The leader of the Aztecs, Moctezuma, believed that Cortes was a god and allowed him to enter the capital unopposed. The Spanish laid siege to the city. A combination of disease and starvation led to the end of the Aztecs.
Monteczuma (p. 34)
Last Aztec Emporer overthrown by the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes 15th century
Pedro Alvares Cabral (p. 35)
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India. He was blown off course in 1500 near the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, and landed on the then-unknown (to Europeans) coast of Brazil. Claimed Brazil for Portugal.
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