AP Euro: CH. 13
Terms in this set (94)
Prince who led the one of the Netherlands provinces
Most influential & powerful province of the Netherlands
Dutch East India Company
A company founded by the Dutch in the early 17th century to establish & direct trade throughout Asia. Wealthier & more powerful than England's company, they drove out the English & established dominance over the region. It ended up going bankrupt & being bought out by the British
Amsterdam Stock Exchange
The 1st in the world. Established in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company for dealings in its printed stocks & bonds.
William III of Orange
Grandson of William the Silent of Orange & lead the republic in the Netherlands (through Holland); led the entire European force against France & Louis XIV; eventually invaded England via Parliament's request & assumed the English throne with his wife, Mary II
Any form of government in which the ruler has nearly complete power, unrestrained by law or other governing bodies. Ex)France with Louis XIV
A government with a king or queen whose power is limited by the power of a parliament. Ex) England with James I
Divine Right of Kings
A general term used for the ideas surrounding the authority & legitimacy of a monarch, holding that a monarch derives his or her right to rule from the will of God.
First Stuart King. Previous King of Scotland. Son of Mary Queen of Scots. English Parliament disliked him because was Scottish, he had Catholic sympathies, & they fought over power. He is a firm believer in Divine Right of Kings & absolute ruling.
New taxes enforced by James I of England as a way to raise money without the permission of Parliament
A group of Protestant radicals in England who wanted the Anglican Church (or the Church of England) to remove all of its Catholic tendencies. James I refused to recognize them, so most of them left England for the New World
A colony established in what is now Massachusetts by Puritans who abandoned hope that the Anglican Church could be reformed.
Duke of Buckingham
James I's secret lover. His closeness to James I made many of the members of Parliament upset. Encouraged James I to enforce impositions without Parliament approval
Son of James I, Conflicted with Parliament & repeatedly dissolved Parliament because they challenged his foreign policy, marriage, etc. Parliament came back (Charles needed money) but they still disagreed - This resulted in the English Civil War. He was captured, escaped, recaptured, charged with treason & executed
Petition of Right
English Parliament forced Charles I to sign this document in exchange for funds to Charles I's money issues. Document stated that the king could no longer create forced loans or taxes, imprison men without due cause, & place troops in private homes without consent from Parliament. Charles I singed it but then ignored the document & dissolved Parliament for years.
Charles I's chief advisor, supported taxing the people without Parliament's approval
Parliament called by Charles I to raise taxes to fund fighting the war against Scotland (who was fighting England because Charles I wanted them to adopt the Anglican Church). This Parliament refused to grant Charles his new taxes if he didn't acknowledge Parliamentary rights outlined in the Petition of Right. Charles disbanded parliament after only a month. England will lose the war with Scotland.
Parliament called upon by Charles I when he was desperate for money after Scotland defeated English armies. Parliament was very divided internally though over religion. Charles finally agreed to demands by Parliament:
- Parliament could not be dissolved w/o its own consent
- Parliament had to meet a minimum of once every 3 years
- Leaders of those who persecuted Puritans to be tried & executed
- Star Chamber abolished
- Common law courts followed above king's courts
Charles I tried to take control of Parliament with military force, Parliament escaped & passed this, allowing Parliament to raise a standing army against the king.
Troops loyal to the monarchy in the English Civil War
Troops loyal to Parliament in the English Civil War. Consisted of puritans, country land owners, &town based manufacturers, led by Oliver Cromwell
Executed Charles I, As "Lord Protector of England" he used his army to control the English gov't as a military dictatorship. Instituted Puritan laws:
- No drunkenness, theater-going, or dancing
Son of James I & Stuart king. Had left England under Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector, was in power. Cromwell's iron-fisted rule prompted people to call for the restoration of the Anglican Church & the monarchy, so he returned to England as king. Secretly a Catholic, & wanted Catholics & Puritans to worship freely alongside the established Anglicans.
Law made by Parliament that excluded Catholics & others from political affairs in England
Treaty of Dover
English & French kings (Charles II & Louis XIV) had a secret meeting & allied against the Dutch, as long as Charles promised to convert to Catholicism in exchange for funds to fight with.
Declaration of Indulgence
Law made by Charles II that gave religious freedom to all Catholics. Parliament got angry & then refused to give any funds for England's war effort in the Dutch. Law was quickly overturned so that Charles II could get funds.
Law passed by Parliament that required anyone in the gov't to swear an oath against the doctrine of transubstantiation. This kicked out any Catholics in gov't.
A rumor that lead to a full trial& executions that stated that the Queen was trying to get Catholics to kill Charles II so that his Catholic brother would gain authority.
Son of James I, Last Stuart king to rule England, Catholic,Was overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange after he refused to work with Parliament (heavily Protestant), issued another Declaration of Indulgence & repealed the Test Act
William & Mary
King & Queen of England in 1688. William III of Orange was the grandson of William I of Orange of Holland & the son-in-law of James II of England. English Parliament (heavily Protestant) invited them to rule England in the Glorious Revolution.
When James II left his throne & was replaced by his daughter Mary & her husband, Prince William of Orange of the Netherlands.
Bill of Rights
Law made after William & Mary take the throne:
- No law can be suspended by the king
- No taxes raised
- No army maintained except with parliamentary consent
- No Catholics could ever be on the throne
Act of Settlement
Law by Parliament stating that should William III of Orange die without an heir, Mary's Protestant sister, Anne, would take the throne, thereby protecting Protestant rule in England.
Act of Union
Law by Parliament uniting England & Scotland into one kingdom: Great Britain. Intended to strengthen England against France. Abolished the Scottish Parliament.
Became King of England & reigned during the American Revolution.
James Edward Stuart
"The Pretender", Catholic son of James II, Attempted to overthrow King George I of England, failed.
Sir Robert Walpole
The 1st Prime Minister of England, his election led to the rise of the House of Commons.
England under a Prime Minister
- Limited monarchy
- Religious toleration
- No massive standing army
- Free speech
- Freedom of association
"Sun King", Absolute monarch that completely controlled France. Built the palace at Versailles.
Chief Minister. His three point plan helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.
1. Break the power of the nobility
2. Humble the House of Austria
3. Control the Protestants
Succeeded Cardinal Richelieu as Chief Minister, Governed France during childhood of Louis XIV & challenged by Fronde (civil war against excessive power of administration). Convinced many Frenchmen that the only alternative to absolution was anarchy
A series of civil wars in France by nobles against Louis XIV's & Mazarin's authority, Nobles were unable to overthrow the monarchy.
French regional courts dominated by nobles. The Parlement of Paris claimed the right to register royal decrees before they could become law.
A palace built in a valley by Louis XIV outside of Paris; it was home to Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette, Louis XIV used the extra rooms to have nobles stay in as a bribe. 1st notion of a beautiful "capital city"
An economic advisor to Louis XIV who was a financial genius who funded all of Louis XIV's wars & led to France's economic prosperity
War of Devolution
French invasion of the Spanish Netherlands because Louis XIV believed that his wife Marie Therese was supposed to inherit the region, France vs. Spain, Netherlands, England & Sweden. Nothing much changed geographically
War started by a French attack on the Netherlands because the Dutch interfered with the War of Devolution in the Spanish Netherlands. France allied with England against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, & the Netherlands. Nothing much changed geographically
Radical Catholics who strongly followed the advice of the Pope. Monopolized the educational system in France
Movement within the 17th century Catholic Church. Followed the ideas of St. Augustine, Opposed the Jesuits & advocated that humans could only achieve salvation through divine grace, not through good works. Group did not get along with Jesuits or the King Louis XIV
Founder of the Jansenism
Papal bull condemning Jansenism teaching
1st wife of King Louis XIV, From Austria/Spain (Hapsburg Empire), Only had 1 child make it to adulthood Louis Dauphin
Only child from Louis XIV's 1st marriage to survive into adulthood
Madame de Maintenon
Mistress of Louis XIV who became his 2nd wife, Deeply pious Catholic who pushed Louis toward more pro-Catholic views
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV revoked the liberties given to the Huguenots by his grandfather, Henry IV. This ordered the destruction of Huguenot churches, schools, the Catholic baptism of Huguenots, & the exile of Huguenot priests who failed to renounce their faith. This made France be a symbol of religious repression while England appeared to be religiously tolerant.
Nine Years War
War fought under Louis XIV of France. Resulted in the loss of vast territory acquired by Louis XIV & stopped Louis XIV's expansion into Germany.
War of the Spanish Succession
War fought over the Spanish throne; Louis XIV wanted it for his son & fought a war against the Dutch, English, & the Holy Roman Empire (who all wanted to keep Spain & France separated for the good of Europe), England's army was far better equipped & led as compared to the defeated French army.
Succeeded King Louis XIV (his great-grandfather) after his death, Will lead France through the beginning phases of the French Revolution
Duke of Orleans
Louis XV's regent during his minority, reinstituted power of Parlements and let John Law in charge of finances which led to the Mississippi Bubble.
Financial manager of France, Developed the Mississippi Bubble
John Law's economic folly in France. He tried to restore the economy by giving the debt to the Mississippi company. Then over-speculation of their bonds occurred. The stock rose, and people sold the bonds for paper money. When they tried to exchange the paper money with gold, there was not enough gold to support this, and the economy collapsed.
(1653-1743) Cardinal appointed by Louis XV's regent. He balanced the budget & carried out plans for road & canal construction in France. Colonial trade boomed and but the economy never grew due to French wars.
The legislative assembly of the Polish nobility. Very strong (each member had veto power) & refused to allow a central authority to control Poland
voting in Polish legislative assembly had to be unanimous for changes to be made; thus, little could be done to systematically strengthen the kingdom
Ruler of Austria, Obsessed with keeping the Habsburg empire together, issued the Pragmatic Sanction. No male heir so the empire passed to Maria Theresa.
Law by Charles VI, Stated that the Hapsburg Empire were never to be divided, & his daughter, Maria Theresa would be the ruler
"The Great Elector", Hohenzollern family, Ruled Prussia (no crown) through a militarized state, Collected taxes to heavily fund the ever-growing military,
A class of landholding Prussians, aristocrats, They were recruited into the military to become part of the officer class, & they helped make the military stronger.
Frederick William I
1st King of Prussia, Prussian military continued to increase in strength. Was anti-culture & obsessed with the army. Cut expense of the royal household by 3/4. Always appeared in military uniform. Doubled size of army, 1/5 of pop of Berlin were soldiers. Left to his son Frederick II(The Great) a "war machine" of a nation. Treated of son Frederick II like a soldier, very harsh
"The Terrible", Russian ruler, no heir, cruel & tyrannical, murdered nobility, extremely paranoid (killed his own son), taxed people heavily; took title of "czar"
Time of Troubles
Early 17th-century period of Russian boyar efforts to find a leader for Russia after the death of Ivan IV, ended with the selection of a 17 year-old Michael Romanov as tsar in 1613.
1st of Romanovs to rule Russia, Romanovs will rule Russia for the next 300 years (1613 - 1917), Ended the "Time of Troubles", Clearly established absolutism.
Moscow guards who revolted against Peter the Great while he was on the Great Embassy. They were soon replaced by a professional army.
"Peter the Great", Russian Czar, Ruled at age 10, Stood 6'9", violent temper, red hair. Tried to "westernize" Russia. Admired Louis XIV & wanted to copy French culture. Built a new palace & new capital St. Petersburg as a "Western capital", Travelled throughout Europe in disguise but his height continuously gave him away, On his return to Russia, he wanted to force Western customs on at least the nobility (the Boyars), so women had to wear French fashions & men had to shave beards unless they paid a beard tax. He fought Sweden in a long war & finally got access to the Baltic Sea where he built his new capital.
The Great Northern War
Russia defeated Sweden to acquire the land on the Baltic Sea where Peter the Great would establish St. Petersburg, Russia's 1st "warm-water port"
Peace of Nystad
Ended the Great Northern War, Granted Russia large amounts of land along the Baltic Sea
Capitol city created by Peter the Great to resemble a French city. It was built on land taken from Sweden
Son of Peter the Great; Never demonstrated intelligence or ambition, Was a disappointment; Became involved in a conspiracy to overthrow his father as ruler, Eventually died after being tortured, imprisoned, & sentenced to death
Swedish institutions that were created in Russia to oversee taxes, war, economics, etc, each overseen by departments to lessen corruption
Table of Ranks
Created by Peter I, It creates opportunities for non-nobles to serve the state &join the nobility. Now nobility would be based on merit (achievement) instead of lineage
Russian Orthodox Church
The church of Russia, branched off of Catholicism; Supported the Czar
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, & the Balkans, Fell after World War I.
Segregated areas of towns for religious minorities to live & practice their religion in the Ottoman Empire. They were able to worship freely, but also had to pay special taxes
"Protected subjects" under Islamic rule, Non-Muslims who were allowed to practice their faith as "people of the book" (Christians & Jewsw) in return for their paying special taxes
A tax that people of the book must pay for not being Muslim in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman policy of taking boys from Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers
Slave soldiers, mostly Christian youths, who defended the Ottoman Empire, Were paid in cash as regular soldiers, Became a strong social class within the Ottoman Empire
The code of law derived from the Koran & from the teachings & example of Mohammed
Muslim religious scholars. The primary interpreters of Islamic law & the social core of Muslim urban societies.
Holy book of Islam
Military & political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country
A prime minister in a Muslim kingdom or empire
Treaty of Carlowitz
Required the Ottoman Empire to surrender most of Hungary to the Habsburgs, Poland, & Venice