134 terms

Exam 3 bio of verts

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mammal external structure
- thickest integument of verts
- follows basic vert plan
- have hair as protective structure
molting
shedding hair regularly
vibrissae
special group of hairs, long thick guard hair (whiskers)
integumentary glands
- sebaceous: secrete sebum to lubricate and oil hair and skin, also used to waterproof hair and skin
- sudoriferous: release water with ions in response to heat (sweat)
- musk: release pheromones
- mammary: more internal than other glands, secretes milk. Only in mammals
mammal skeleton
- decreased number of skill bones
- enhanced nasal cavity
- have a secondary palate
- have thecodont, heterodont, and diphyodont dentition
- have axial and appendicular skeleton
- bone is a special type of connective tissue
secondary palate
almost complete separation between nasal and mouth cavities
axial skeleton
portion that's along the mid-longitudinal axis of the body. Skull, sternum, ribs, vertebral column
appendicular skeleton
everything that comes off of the axial skeleton. Pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, appendages
mammal bone
- formed by osteocytes
- two types: compact and spongy
- compact bone is dense and heavy, acts as outer layer. Composed os osteons
- spongy bone have spikes with airspaces
medulary canal
canal in the center of long bones
osteonic canal
in bones, where vessels and nerves run through. Provides support against small forces to prevent breakage
mammal digestive system
- mode of nutrition is related to teeth type
- alimentary canal similar to basic vert plan
- enhances jaws and jaw muscles
- have enhances epithelial lining in SI
- monotremes have a cloaca
carnivore dentition
sharp, more pointed teeth
herbivore dentition
reduced or absent canines, flat broad molars
omnivore dentition
basic teeth, all four types. Inbetween herbivores and carnivore
herbivore digestive system
- have specializations to breakdown cellulose
- require microorganisms that secrete enzymes to breakdown cellulose
- cecum: blind pouch that houses microorganisms
- ruminant mammals have four chambered stomachs (first three chambers are for storage and fermentation, fourth is normal stomach)
mammal circulatory system
- similar to birds
- both high metabolism, endothermic, and have 4 chambered heart
- no pseudochambers
- sinus venosus became pacemaker cells
- 2 atria: smaller, thinner, chambers that receive blood
- 2 ventricles: larger, thicker chambers that pump out blood
- right side of heart conducts blood to lungs and back to heart (pulmonary circuit)
- left side of heart conducts blood out to the body and back to heart (systemic circuit)
- advances: increase in chambers, increase in size, decrease of pseudochambers
- atrioventricular valve: btw aorta and ventricles
- semilunar valves: pulmonary SV and aortic SV, btw arteries and ventricles
mammal path of blood
vena cava > right atrium > AV valve > right ventricle > SV > pulmonary arteries > lungs > pulmonary veins > left atrium > AV valve > left ventricle > SV > aorta > body
fetal heart development in placental mammals
- two shortcut to bypass lungs
1. foramen ovale: hole btw right and left atrium
2. ductus arteriosus: vessel btw portion of pulmonary arteries and aorta
- at birth FO seals up and DA fills in and functions as a binding ligament
mammal temp. regulation
- endothermic, must maintain constant temp
- conserve heat with fat, hair, arrangement of vessels, and by covering appendages
- generate heat by shivering, increasing blood flow through muscles
- release heat by evaporative cooling, panting
- other mechanisms: migration, nocturnality, winter sleep (torpor), hibernation
hibernation
major drop in body temp and metabolism
mammal gas exchange
- well developed separation btw mouth and nasal cavities
- inhaled air is moistened and warmed
- one passage in, same passage out (blind pouches)
- pathway is covered by mucous secreting ciliated epithelium
- on average, about 16.7% efficient
- lungs are the largest of all vertebrates
- trachea, larynx, bronchi, and bronchioles all have rings of cartilage to support them
- diaphragm: smooth muscular organ separating thoracic and abdominal cavities
- muscles contract, diaphragm flattens posteriorly, chest cavity expands, lungs expand to fill with air
marine mammal gas exchange
- 90% efficient
- before diving, more O2 in the blood because extra RBCs are released from the spleen
- some O2 is stored in muscles
- heart rate decreases, cut in half
- only normal blood flow to heart and brain
mammal lungs
- multilobed, vascular sponges with capillary beds around air pockets
- O2/CO2 gradients btw air pockets and surrounding blood > diffusion
- alveolus are site of gas exchange
-
mammal air pathway
external nares > nasal cavity > internal nares > pharynx > glottis > trachea/larynx > split into 2 bronchi > bronchioles > alveoli > exhaled air follows same pathway backwards
mammal nervous system
- 55:1 brain to spinal cord ratio
- increase in cerebrum, corpus callosum, and cerebellum
- touch: likely best of all verts, lots of receptors under skin, at base of hair follicles
- olfaction: fossil mammals exhibit larger nasal cavity than living mammals
- auditory: pinna, external ear opening, 3 middle ear ossicles, cochlea of inner ear
- vision: focus by changing shape of lens. Less color vision than birds (rods>cones - enhanced for dim light)
- forebrain is incredibly enhanced
mammal excretory system
- most advanced metanephric kidney
- waste product is urea, some water is lost
- nephron is similar to basic plan, has enhanced lower loop
- loop of henle: lower loop of nephron is constricted to slow down filtrate to allow for more water reabsorption and more waste secretion
mammal reproduction
- all viviparous except three oviparous species
- requires placenta, enhanced hormonal system, uterus, major investment or energy and time by female
- advantage of live-bearing: can be motile, no single nest site, young born more independent
- timing is important, impacted by external and internal factors
- timed so young are born at good time of year
- placenta attaches to uterus
- attachment supported by hormonal activity
- fertilization occurs in upper third of oviduct
- cleavage is immediate after fertilization
estrous cycle
most mammals; moestrous, diestrous, or polyestrous
menstrual cycle
primates
- enhancement of inner lining of uterus (endometrium)
- 28 day cycle, ovulation on day 14
- ovulation: release of an egg from the follicle
delayed fertilization
females store sperm from fall mating, winter dormancy
embryonic diapause
fertilization is immediate, but embryo development is delayed
monotreme reproduction
- platypus lays eggs in burrow outside of the body
- echidnas lay egg in pouch
- both incubate eggs to speed up development
marsupial reproduction
- have a lesser placenta due to weaker hormonal system
- young are born in an underdeveloped state and are carried in the marsupium for a period of time
- gestation is 8 to 40 days
eutherian reproduction
- good hormonal system can support connection for long period of time
- most have a high degree of parental care
- gestation 20 days to 22 months
ecology
study of interactions between two individuals or the environment that determine distribution and abundance of living organisms
population
group of individuals of a single species in a given area
community
all of the living organisms (biotic factors) that live and interact in a given area
ecosystem
all of the biotic and abiotic (nonliving factors) that exist and interact within a given area
structural components of the environment
- inorganic compounds: water, oxygen, nitrogen, etc.
- organic compounds: (biomolecules) lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids
- physical variables: sunlight, day length, temp, climate, etc.
- producers: autotrophs, self-feeding, usually photosynthetic
- macroconsumers: heterotrophs, ingest feeding, animals that eat preformed molecules, animals
- microconsumers: saprotrophs, absorptive feeding, dcomposers
functional components of the environment
processes that are preformed by the structural components of the environment
intraspecific
interaction btw individuals of the same species
interspecific
interactions btw individuals of different species
effect
one individuals impact on another
symbiotic association
two species in a close ecological relationship where at least one benefits. May involve coevolution
coevolution
joint evolution of non-interbreeding species in a close ecological relationship, exposed to similar selection pressures
commensalism
- +/0 interaction
- one benefits, one is not impacted
- gopher tortoise burrows and many benefitting species
- barnacles living on a whale
- sharks and small fish that follow them
mutualism
- +/+ interaction
- both individuals benefit
- reciprocal exploitation
- may involve food, shelter, protection
- degree of dependence: obligatory or falcultative
- degree of physical association: live together or live apart
- degree of specificity: highly specific or non-specific
- ant and the acacia tree
incidental benefits
not a direct mutualistic benefit
cheaters
no guarantee that the benefit will be performed (pollinators)
parasitism
- +/- interaction
- involves a parasite and a host, usually is not lethal to the host but host is weakened
- the parasites habitat is the host, they need to be able to find and access the right host
- two types of hosts (intermediate and definitive)
- two modes of transmission (direct and indirect)
macroparasites
- ticks, lice, fleas, tapeworms, roundworms,
- lower reproductive rate, linger generational time
- often require multiple hosts
microparasites
- bacteria, viruses, protozoan
- small
- rapid reproduction rate and short generations
infection
heavy load of parasites
disease
any state in the condition of an organism that deviates from normal
endoparasite
parasites that live inside the hosts body (tapeworm)
ectoparasite
parasites that live on the outside of the hosts body
intermediate host
organism that houses a developmental stage of a parasites life cycle
- not all parasites have an intermediate host
definitive host
organism in which a parasite reaches sexual maturity
- all parasites have a definitive host
direct transmission
transfer or parasite from one host to another host by direct contact or through a carrier
indirect transmission
different stages of a parasites life cycle with different hosts
predation
- +/- interaction
- one benefits one is negatively impacted
- different forms of interaction related to amount consumed, how its consumed, what is consumed, periodicity of consumption, and lethality
- not all predation is lethal
- all forms involve transfer of energy
- four types
- parasitism can also be considered a form of predation
- number of predators may be directly related of abundance of prey
- predator consumption may be related to prey abundance
- prey population may be regulated by predation at some level
- generally as prey populations increase so do predator populations
- mostly predators have a low impact on prey populations
- prey is more regulated by environmental factors
types of predation
1. predator/prey
- like carnivores
2. grazer
- any animal that takes a little every time, and moves from one source to another
- cows, flies, mosquitos
3. herbivory
- eating plant matter, usually not lethal to plant
4. cannabalism
- predator and prey are the same species
- many fish are cannibalistic
behavioral response of predators to prey prey abundance
- most common: as prey density increases consumption rate increases to a point, then levels out
satiation
point that the predator is full and cannot consume any more prey
- animals typically do not eat at the satiation level, but a little below it
numerical response of predators to prey abundance
- dispersal of predators to an area with prey abundance
- increased reproduction due to more food
- increases survival of young and females due to more food
competition
- -/- interaction
- not a symbiotic relationship
- stressful to both involved
- animals may compete for resources
- when there are lower levels of resources, there is more competition
- if there is a winner, both are still negatively impacted bu the loser is impacted more
- to forms of competition (exploitation and interference)
conditions
environmental factors which animals have a tolerance for (temp, climate, rainfall, etc.)
resource
anything that an organism consumes or uses up so that it becomes unavailable to another organism (food, water, space, mates, etc.)
competitive exclusion principle
two species cannot coexist using the same exact resources, in the same way while in the same time and place
- one species will lose, and either have to specialize or immigrate to a new place
coexistance
typical; many species living together utilizing the resources in slightly different ways, probably driven by competition
generalists
species that can utilize a wide range of resources, and can tolerate a wide range of conditions
- easier to find food and shelter/habitat
- can live almost anywhere, anytime, but they will always be competing to some degree
specialists
species that utilize few resources, and tolerate a narrow range of conditions
- minimal competition due to being the best at a very specific task
- but can only live and survive in a very specific place
- if something happens to one of their main resources, they will not be able to adapt in time to survive
exploitation competition
- short term/incomplete success
- all members have access to abundant resources
- but not enough resources to maintain life longterm
- think salmon run in Alaska
interference competition
- winner and a loser
- winner gets as much resource as needed, they're better at utilizing and accessing resource
- winner is better at beating out other individual
- getting in the others way
detection of competition
-removing/adding experiment
- Gause's experiment with paramecium
- looked at 3 species living alone and with eachother
- 1 eats more and grows and reproduces faster than 2 and 3, 2 and 3 are very similar
- on their own, each thrived
- 1+2: 1 always won
- 1+3: 1 always won
- 2+3: they coexist, 2 feeds on bottom 3 feeds on suspended food, but both populations increase slower when together than when apart
food web
- energy is passed between different levels of an ecosystem
- composed of producers and consumers
- producers, consumers, and decomposers
- organic matter can be recycled, but energy cannot
- on average there is only a 10% efficiency of conversion of organic matter to animal tissue from one level to another, the other 90% is transformed into heat (most efficient in water ecosystems)
energy transfer in food webs
- higher trophic levels get less energy for the same amount of food than lower trophic levels do
- generally limited to 3 or 4 levels
- amount of biomass decreases each level
- small animals are more numerous than larger ones
- if the herbivore is a larger endotherm the chain will be shorter
- endotherms are poor transfers of energy
biogeography
distribution os species
- distribution is impacted by movement ability, reproduction, environmental requirements, and size of the organism and area it is in
- geological events are important to distribution (earthquakes, eruptions, tsunamis, large storms, etc.)
zoobiogeography
distribution of animal species
ecological biogeography
distribution determined by environmental requirements or tolerances
historical biogeography
separation based on time
means of distribution
- flying
- swimming
- walking
- on trains, planes, and boats
- different restrictions depending on mode used
distribution barriers
- physical: land, water, mountain, desert, etc.
- climatic: temp, sunlight, rainfall, salinity
- biological: resource availability, predators, competitors
- barriers may change over time
levels of distribution
1. geological
2. ecological
3. geographical
geological distribution
- geological events are important
- continents used to fit together as Pangea
- similar fossils and rock formations in areas that used to fit together
plate tectonics
study of the movement of the large crustal plates that form the surface of the Earth of continental land masses ad beneath oceans
continental drift
principal that land masses (plates) move over time
- most move northernly at 1 cm/yr
- NA moving west at 4cm/yr
- Australia moving north at 4 cm/yr
continental drift timeline
350 mya: Pangea, all continents together
200 mya: 2 supercontinents, Luarasia and Gondwana
100 mya: supercontinents continue to break up, Gondwana a bit faster
80 mya: India crashed into Asia, creating Himalayas
50 mya: near present location of continents
Paleozoic era
age of Fishes
- Ordovician period: first vertebrates appeared
- Devonium period: class osteichthyes, chondrichthyes, and amphibia appeared
- Carboniferous period: class reptilia first appeared
Mezozoic era
age of Reptiles
- Jurassic period: class mammalia and Aves first appeared
Cenozoic era
age of Mammals
ecological distribution
resource availability and ecological tolerances impact distribution, establishment, and abundance of a species
- 3 major types of ecological environments (marine, freshwater, and terrestrial)
Marine
- largest, 70% of Earths surface
- all mostly connected
- coral reefs, mangroves, tidal marshes, seagrass/algal beds all have high productivity
Freshwater
- smallest
- mostly disconnected and impacted by barriers
- very hard for aquatic animals to move from them
Terrestrial
- most variation of three environments
- Victor Shelford described different types of ecosystems as biomes
- 17 to 35 different biomes, depending on who you talk to
- 6 biomes in N. America
Tundra
- relatively large
- key feature is permafrost (permanently frozen soil)
- treeless, only small shrubs
- low evaporation rate
- mosses, lichens, grasses, shrubs, main vegetation
Taiga
- or boreal forest
- mostly coniferous trees
- heavy snow cover, very cold
- short growing season
- some permafrost
- soil is low in nutrient content
- large patches of uniform forest, very little sunlight reaches the ground
- low diversity
Temprate deciduous forest
- Eastern N. America
- precipitation varies
- warm summers, cold winters
- soil typically low in nutrients
- deciduous hardwood trees are dominant vegitation
- trees drop leaves in fall so sunlight can reach ground and allow understory to grow
- plants in particular regions form patches
Grassland
- or prairie
- cold winters with a lot of wind
- precipitation around 100 cm/yr
- green belt region of US
- perennial bunchgrass is the dominant vegetation
- area between deciduous forest and desert
- very fertile soil
- very high variation in temps
Desert
- low precipitation
- high daytime temps, low night time temps
- annual plants are better represented (short life cycle)
- cactus, Joshua trees, sagebrush, and agave are dominant vegitation
Tropical forest
- southern Mexico
- high species diversity
- soils are very poor for growth, nutrients leached out by rain
- tall, broad-leafed evergreen leaves are the dominant vegitation
- trees shade the forest floor, very little herbaceous veg.
geographical distribution
- based on designated land masses
- 6 biogeographical realms based on plant and animal distributions, proposed by Alfred Wallace
- 57% of mammals are endemic to a specific realm
- isolation reflects climate, barriers, and tolerances
- bats and marine mammals are less restricted
cosmopolitan families
- found worldwide
- live alongside humans
- Muridae
- Leporidae
- Canidae
- distribution was aided by humans
Nearctic realm
- most of N. America
- isolation by salt water, cold climate, and desert
- 13 endemic vert. families (6 fish, 4 amphibians, 1 reptile, 2 mammals)
- 5% of mammals are endemic
Nearctic endemic fish families
Amiidae (bowfins)
Aphredoderidae (pirate perch)
Amblylopsidae (cave fish)
Centrarchidae (sunfish)
Hiodontidae (mooneye)
Percopcidae (trout perches)
Nearctic endemic amphibian families
Ambystomidae (mole salamanders)
Amphiumidae (amphiumas)
Sirenidae (sirens)
Dicamptodontidae (giant pacific salamanders)
Nearctic endemic reptile families
Anniellidae (california legless lizard)
Neartic endemic mammal families
Aplodontidae (mountain beaver)
Antilocapridae (pronghorn)
Palearctic realm
- Europe and Asia, north of Sahara in Africa
- isolated by cold climate, desert, mountains, and saltwater
- 5 endemic vert. families (1 amphibian, 4 mammals)
- 10% of mammals are endemic
Palearactic endemic mammals
Spalacidae (blind mole rats)
Dipodidae (gerboas)
Neotropical realm
- Mexico, Central and South America
- isolated by saltwater and desert
- 67 endemic vert. families (18 fish, 1 amphibian, 21 mammals, 3 reptiles, 24 birds)
- 40% of mammals are endemic
Neotropical endemic mammals
Cebidae (new world monkeys)
Chinchillidae (chinchillas)
Caviidae (guinea pigs)
Ethiopian realm
- Subsaharan Africa
- isolated by desert and saltwater
- 35 endemic vert. families (8 fish, 1 reptile, 1 amphibian, 7 birds, 18 mammals)
- 33% of mammals are endemic
Ethiopian endemic mammals
Giraffidae (griaffes)
Hippopomatidae (hippos)
Lemuridae (lemurs)
Tenrecidae (tenrecs)
Oriental realm
- India, SE Asia, islands west of the Wallace line
- isolated by saltwater and mountains
- 18 endemic vert families (9 fish, 3 reptiles, 1 bird, 5 mammals)
- 8% of mammals endemic
Oriental endemic mammals
Tarsiidae (tarsiers)
Tupaiidae (tree shrews)
Australian realm
- Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania, islands east of Wallace's line
- completely isolated by saltwater
- 24 endemic families (1 fish, 3 reptiles, 11 birds, 9 mammals)
- 64% of mammals endemic
Australian endemic mammals
Macropodidae (kangaroos and wallabies)
Tachyglossidae ( spiny anteater)
Dasyuridae (tasmanian devil and wolf)
comparative psychology
emphasis on study of genetic, neural, and hormonal basis of animal behavior
ethology
study of animal behavior in which evolution and the natural environment are considered
behavioral ecology
emphasis is placed on the ecological aspects of behavior
sociobiology
study of the evolution of social behavior. combines aspects of ethology and behavioral ecology
proximate cause
immediate ecological and physiological causes of behavior
ultimate cause
those that occur on the evolutionary time frame
maturation
completion of the natural development of an animal system, improvement of behavioral performances
instinct
innate response to a stimulus
learning
changes in behavior due to previous experience
five types of learning
habituation
classical conditioning
instrumental conditioning
latent learning
insight learning
habituation
gradual acclimation to an environmental stimulus, likely controlled by CNS
classical conditioning
learning of associations among events, becoming accustomed to something occurring along with something else
instrumental conditioning
trial and error learning, learning to associate behavior with the consequences of the behavior
latent learning
animal makes associations without immediate reward or reinforcement, some motivation exists though it may not be obvious
insight learning
using mental processes to solve problems and associate experiences