39 terms

PSYCH- COGNITIVE

STUDY
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cognitive psychology
study of human mental processes, are thoughts programmed into our brains like computers?
memory
persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval of info and skills
encoding
info enters in way so that it can be stored
storing
info stored in way so that it can be retrieved
retrieving
process of getting info out of storage and producing it in similar way to what was encoded
Atkinson-Shiffrin model
stimuli recorded and held in sensory memory, some info processed into short-term memory, info moved into longterm (can be retrieved)
adjustments to Atkinson-Shiffrin model
working memory, automatic processing (sensory memory --> longterm memory)
sensory memory
brief mems of sensory info
short-term memory
temporary mem, limited in capacity
longterm memory
permanent mem, explicit and implicit
explicit memory
facts/experiences we know/recall, semantic vs. episodic, episodic= autobiographic memory that pertains to person's history, recollection of particular event in relation to time/place, semantic= generalized memory, not knowing where/when it was learned
implicit memory
not fully aware of these, formed without Atkinson-Shiffrin model, implicit biases vs. associate learning vs. procedural, procedural= knowing how to physically do something
shallow processing
physical and sensory aspects of info
deep processing
info analyzed by meaning
transcience
forgetting what occurs with passage of time, especially when info isn't used, adaptive, makes space for new info
absent-mindedness
lapse in attention results in memory failure, brain is attempting to block memory overload
blocking
failure to retrieve info that is available even though you're trying to retrieve it, brain is attempting to block memory overload
misattribution
assigning recollection/idea to wrong source
persistence
intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget
flashbulb memories
detailed recollection of emotional/traumatic events
misinformation effect
exposed to misleading info --> caused to misremember (eyewitnesses reconstruct memories after crime, new info used to fill in gaps of memories)
cognition
mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, communicating, etc.
problem-solving
trial and error, algorithm (methodical procedure that guarantees solving), heuristic
confirmation bias
tendency to search for info that supports preconceptions and ignore contradictory evidence
belief perseverance
overconfidence, inability to change beliefs
availability heuristic
estimating likelihood of events based on availability in memory
creativity
ability to produce new/valuable ideas, brain activity for intelligence differs from brain activity for this
ways to boost creativity
develop expertise, allow time for incubation, allow mind to wander, experience new things
intelligence
ability to acquire new info, to think effectively, and to deal with new situations, can be measured, general --- suggests underlying general mental ability
genius
correlates with physical brain size, extra gray/white matter, physical size of regions in brain, high activity in frontal lobe
language
use of symbols to represent, transmit, and store meaning
phonemes
sounds used in languages
morphemes
smallest unit of meaning within any language (roots, prefixes, suffixes)
syntax
systematic way to combine/sequence words to generate phrases
syntactical development
4 months- babbling, 1 year- one word at a time, 2 years- telegraphic speech
critical period
children without language exposure by age of seven lose ability to master any language
aphasias
disorders that result from damage to parts of brain responsible for language, Broca's vs. Wernicke's
Broca's aphasias
unable to speak, can understand language
Wernicke's aphasias
can say words, not speaking fluently, cannot understand language
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