36 terms

PSYCH- SOCIAL

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Terms in this set (...)

social psychology
scientific study of how we think about, influence, and react to one another
attribution
conclusion about cause of observed behavior/event
attribution theory
2 types of ---, situational vs. dispositional
situational attribution
factors outside person caused behavior
dispositional attribution
stable traits/emotions of person at hand caused behavior
fundamental attribution theory
tendency to overestimate dispositional and underestimate situational influences on someone's behavior
actor-observor effect
tendency to attribute failures to situation and successes to personality traits (self-serving bias)
collectivist cultures
attribute behavior of others more to situation, give more credit to others' successes, take more blame
attitude
feelings and beliefs that affect how we respond to events and others
peripheral route persuasion
changing attitudes by going "around" rational mind and appealing to fears/desires of other person
central route persuasion
going "through" rational mind by using logic/evidence
door-in-face phenomenon
tendency to be more likely to agree to smaller request after turning down bigger request
foot-in-door phenomenon
tendency to be more likely to agree to large request after agreeing to smaller one
cognitive dissonance
when actions are not harmonious with attitudes
cognitive dissonance theory
tend to resolve dissonance by changing attitudes to fit actions (have to change attitude, behavior, or perception of behavior to reduce dissonance)
social roles
set of expectations about social positions, tend to adopt attitudes that fit with role we are pretending to play
social facilitation
well-learned task will be performed better in presence of others, newly-learned tasks can be prohibited by others (relates to Yerkes-Dodson law)
social loafing
when focus is on group there is tendency to show less effort because each individual is not held accountable
conformity
adjusting behavior to thinking toward group standard, change without explicit request
automatic mimicry
tendency to unconsciously copy others' behavior
things that make you more likely to conform
not firmly committed to beliefs, medium-sized group, unanimous group, admire someone in group, culture places emphasis on norms
social norm
"correct" or "normal" way of acting/thinking in given group, creates normative influence
informational influence
going along with others because their idea makes sense
why do we obey?
proximity to authority vs. victim, cognitive dissonance, social roles, foot-in-door phenomenon
group polarization
when people with similar view form group --> views become more intense/extreme
group think
when groups make decisions without full discussion or understanding to maintain harmony
pluralistic ignorance
look to others to make decisions --> no one is making a decision --> most people privately disagree with norm but incorrectly assume that most people accept it
deindividuation
loss of self awareness/restraint when you feel anonymous
self-concept
personal and social identities
prejudice
unjustified attitude toward group
discrimination
unjustified behavior against selected group
stereotype
generalized belief about group applied to every member of that group, can lead to self-perpetuating behavior through --- threat
stereotype threat
situational predicament in which people feel at risk to conforming to --- about social group
mere exposure effect
repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases our liking for them
beauty
correlates with popularity and impressions on others, does not correlate with self-esteem, makes people have harder time accepting praise
bystander intervention
notice event --> interpret as emergency --> assume responsibility --> feel like there's something to do --> weigh possible harm against self