43 terms

Chapter 13

Nervous system and endocrine system are to?
Control and adjust the activities of other systems
Shared characteristics of the Nervous system and endocrine system are..
Chemical communication with targeted tissues
The Nervous system in response is....
Relatively swift but brief responses
The Endocrine systen in response is...
Slower but they often last much longer
The Nervous system is all..
of the neural tissue
The Nervous system has how many subdivisions?
2....Central nervous system (CNS) and Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
The Central nervous system (CNS) consists of
Brain and spinal cord

Integrating, processing, and coordinating

Intelligence, memory, learning, and emotion
The Peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of
Neural tissue outside the CNS

Provides sensory information to the CNS

Carries motor commands to peripheral tissues
The PNS is subdivided into two divisions...
afferent division and efferent division
The afferent division of the PNS does what?
brings sensory information to the CNS.
The efferent division does what?
carries motor commands to muscles and glands.
The efferent division is further divided into two divisions, these are?
Somatic nervous system (SNS) and the Autonomic

nervous system (ANS)
The afferent division carries information from
Somatic sensory receptors, Visceral sensory receptors, and Special sense organs
Somatic sensory receptors carries information from what?
Skeletal muscles, joints, and the skin
Visceral sensory receptors carries information from what?
Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
The special sense organ are?
Eye, nose, tongue, and ear
The efferent division begins inside and ends in the?
CNS and ends at an effector.
The Somatic nervous system (SNS) is?
Skeletal muscle contractions

May be voluntary or involuntary
Autonomic nervous system (ANS) is
Visceral motor system

Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands

Neural tissue contains two distinct cell types, these are?
nerve cells, or neurons, and supporting cells, or neuroglia.
Neurons are responsible for what?
the transfer and processing of information in the nervous system.
Supporting cells, or neuroglia do what?
Support cells, or neuroglia
Neuroglia have many functions, including
Provide framework for the neural tissue

Maintain the intercellular environment

Act as phagocytes
How many neurogila, or glial cells are there?
100 billion neuroglia, or glial cells
There is how many more neurogila and glial cells than there are neurons?
Roughly five time the amount
Astrocytes are the...
Largest and most numerous glial cells
Astrocytes have a variety of functions, which include?
Controlling the interstitial environment

Maintaining the blood-brain barrier

Creating a three-dimensional framework for the CNS

Performing repairs in damaged neural tissue

Guiding neuron development
Neurons can be categorized into three functional groups:
Sensory neurons, Motor neurons and Interneurons, or association neurons
Sensory neurons are?
pseudounipolar neurons
Motor neurons are?
multipolar neurons
Interneurons, or association neurons are?
Multipolar neurons
Receptors are monitored by
Sensory neurons
Receptors are monitored by the sensory neurons
Exteroceptors, Proprioceptors, and Interoceptors
Exteroceptors are for
external environment
Internal environment
Internal environment
Exteroceptors = external environment are for?
Touch, temperature, and pressure sensations

Special senses of sight, smell, and hearing
Proprioceptors = internal environment?
Position and movement of skeletal muscles and joints

Information carried in somatic sensory neurons
Interoceptors = internal environment are for?
Digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive systems

Sensations of deep pressure and pain as well as taste
Excitability is the ability of a
Plasmalemma to conduct electrical impulses.
An electrical impulse, or action potential, develops after the
Plasmalemma is stimulated to its threshold.
Nerve impulse is an
action potential traveling along an axion.
The rate of impulse conduction depends on the properties of the axon, specifically:
Presence or absence of myelin sheath The diameter