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44 terms

Ch. 6 Chemistry of Life

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Element
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler chemical substances
Atom
Atom The smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of that element
Nucleus
The center of an element
Isotope
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
Compound
A substance composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined,
Covalent Bond
When two atoms share e- such as H sharing with O in water what is name of the bond?,
Ionic Bond
Attractive force between two ions of opposite charge
Mixture
A combination of substances in which the individual compoenets retain their own properties,
pH
The measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
Acid
Any substance that forms hydrogen ions H+ in water
Base
Any substance that forms hydroxide ions OH- in water
Ion
A charged particle
Ionic Bond
The chemical bond between a metal and non-metal
Covalent Bond
Covalent Bond The chemical bond between a non-metal and non-metal
Halogen Group
The most reactive non-metals.
Alkali
The most reactive metals
Triple Bound
A covalent bond in which 3 pairs of electrons are shared
Double Bond
A covalent bond in which 2 pairs of electrons are shared.
1 + charge
Any elements in group 1
2 + charge
Any elements in group 2
Noble Gases
Group 8 elements that are non-reactive
Valence Electrons
Electrons in the outer energy level
Acid
Any substance that releases hydrogen ions when in water
Base
Any substance that releases OH- hydroxide ions when in water
Strong Base
Closer to 14 on the pH scale
Acid
Sour taste
Base
Bitter and Slippery
Molecule
The base unit of substance such as H2O
Metabolism
All the chemical reactions within an organism
Solution
e distributed evenly in another substance (solvent).
Polar Molecule
A molecule with an uneven distribution of charge
Hydrogen Bond
A intermolecular interaction formed between a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to an electronegative atom (such as oxygen or nitrogen)
Diffusion
The net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
Dynamic Equilibrium
Continuous movement but no overall change in concentration.
Isomer
Compounds that have the same simple formula but different three dimensional structures. Such as fructose and glucose
Polymer
A large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together
Carbohydrate
An organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Lipid
Organic compounds that have a large proportion of C-H bonds and less oxygen than carbs.,
Protein
A large complex polymer conposed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and usually sulfur
Amino Acid
The basic building blocks of proteins
Peptide Bond
The covalent bond formed between the amino acids.
Enzyme
A protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction
Nucleic Acid
A complex macromolecule that stores cellular information in the form of a code.
Nucleotide
Subunits that make up nucleic acids