49 terms

PSYCH- CLINICAL

STUDY
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clinical psychology
branch of psychology focused on assessment and treatment of psychological disorders
psychological disorder
syndrome marked by clinically significant disturbance in cognition, emotional regulation, and behavior, must be deviant, dysfunctional, and distressful
diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
how psychologists currently classify and diagnose disorders, helps push insurance companies towards paying for therapy, can predict future, can prompt research, can suggest treatment
stigma
mark of disgrace associated with particular person or circumstance
Rosenhan studies
tested the reliability of psychological classification, concluded that mental illnesses are social phenomenons
label disorders- positives
provide patients with self-understanding, communication between health professionals, understand common causes, agree upon treatments
highest prevalence of mental illness
United States
lowest prevalence of mental illness
Shanghai
medical student syndrome
tendency for medical students to think they have whatever disorder they are learning about
generalized anxiety disorder
anxiety disorder marked by unexplained and continual uneasiness, in constant state of autonomic nervous system arousal, emotional cognitive symptoms for over 6 months, often co-occurs with depression
panic disorder
anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable episodes of intense dread accompanied by chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations, repeated panic attacks do not = "anxiety attacks"
phobia
anxiety disorder marked by persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of specific object or activity
fear
temporary anxiety, different from phobia
social anxiety disorder
type of phobia, phobia of being judged by others and of public appearances where embarrassment is possible
obsessive compulsive disorder
anxiety disorder marked by unwanted repetitive thoughts and actions
obsession
intense unwanted worry or idea
compulsion
strong feeling of "needing" to carry out action to counteract obsession
post traumatic stress disorder
anxiety disorder marked by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, anxiety, numbness, and insomnia, symptoms for at least 4 weeks, 10-35% of people who've experienced trauma acquire this disorder
learning perspective (anxiety)
anxiety is result of conditioning, often due to traumatic events
classical conditioning (anxiety)
stimulus generalization makes us feel anxious about things related to trauma
operant conditioning (anxiety)
reinforcement leads us to continue disordered behavior
observational learning (anxiety)
adopting anxiety from other's behavior
biological perspective (anxiety)
evolutionary reasons to fear certain things and repeat certain kinds of behavior
cognitive perspective (anxiety)
because we have ability to think, we may overthink
hyper vigilance
persistently watching out for certain danger
major depressive disorder
mood disorder in which person experiences, without drugs or other medical conditions, at least 5 symptoms for at least 2 weeks, one symptom must be either --- mood or loss of pleasure and interest
bipolar disorder
mood disorder in which person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and mania
mania
hyperactive, wildly optimistic state, defined by over talkative-ness, lack of need for sleep, lowered sexual inhibitions, louder speech, increased risk-taking, and boosted creativity
biological perspective (mood)
low serotonin and norepinephrine levels in brain, women have nearly double risk of mood disorder than men, high heritability rates (compared to anxiety disorders)
highest rates of depression
among young adults in developed countries
schizophrenia
disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech, and diminished/inappropriate emotional expression, acute vs. chronic, must have at least 2 symptoms for at least 6 months
delusion
false belief, usually of grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
acute schizophrenia
begins at any age, often occurs with traumatic event, extended recovery period, usually just positive symptoms
chronic schizophrenia
symptoms appear by late adolescence or early adulthood, with age --> psychotic episodes lengthen and recovery periods shorten
schizophrenia positive symptoms
delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior
schizophrenia negative symptoms
flat affect, social withdrawal, neglect of personal hygiene, lack of interest in everyday events, loss of general motivation
biological evidence (schizophrenia)
low birth weight, maternal diabetes, older paternal age, oxygen deprivation during delivery, maternal virus during pregnancy
genetic evidence (schizophrenia)
family history of --- increases likelihood, link is higher between identical twins than fraternal
social-psychological evidence (schizophrenia)
does not seem to cause ---
psychotherapy timeline
psychoanalytic/psychodynamic --> humanistic --> cognitive --> cognitive-behavioral
biomedical therapy
drugs and neurostimulation
psychoanalytic/psychodynamic
insight into unconscious thoughts and feelings, focus on childhood experiences and relationships, stereotypical image of patient on couch with therapist seated behind them
humanistic
boost self-fulfillment and promote self-growth, promote self-actualization, focus on positive connection with therapist, therapist practices empathy and active listening
cognitive
change appraisal of behavior, promote constructive ways of thinking, reveal beliefs and faulty assumptions, decatastrophizing with worst case scenarios
cognitive-behavioral
thoughts impact behavior, if you change behavior --> you can change thoughts
psychopharmacologist
someone who studies drugs and the effects they have on someone's behavior
electroconvulsive shock therapy
patient gets general anesthetic, 30-60 secs of current, 3 session per week for 2-4 weeks, used for depression when all other methods fail, fairly expensive treatment, 80% success rate
transcranial magnetic stimulation
use implanted electrodes to disrupt depressive electrochemical brain patterns, used for depression when all other methods fail
exercise
can boost serotonin and lower stress levels
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