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LP Math Vocabulary
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Gravity
Terms in this set (120)
Set
A collection of objects
Element
A member of a set
Finite Set
Countable or set number of elements
Infinite Set
Too vast to count
Empty Set (Null Set)
Does not contain any elements
Natural Numbers
All positive integers (not including zero)
Whole Numbers
All positive integers (including zero)
Integers
All whole numbers and their additive inverses
Rational Numbers
Any number than can be expressed as a fraction
Real
The set of all rational and irrational numbers
Equal Sets
Sets with exactly the same elements
Equivalent Sets
Sets with the same amount of elements
Associative Property
Grouping can change
Commutative Property
Order can change
Additive Identity
0
Multiplicitive Identity
1
Multiplication Property of Zero
Any Number×0=0
Distibutive Property
a(b+c)=a×b+a×c
Additive Inverse
opposite
Multiplicitive Inverse
reciprocal
Intersection
All elements in common
∩
Intersection
Union
All elements in either or both
U
Union
Mutually exclusive
Two sets which have no elements in common
Disjoint
Two sets which have no elements in common
Opposites
Equal distance, but different directions from 0 on the number line
Absolute Value
the distance of a number from 0 on the number line (never negative)
|x|
Absolute value
Composite Number
A whole number greater than 1 that is not prime
Factor
A whole number that divides evenly into another number
Prime Number
A whole number greater than 1 whose only factors are 1 and itself
GCF
Greatest Common Factor
Relatively Prime
When the GCF of two numbers is one
Prime Factorization
A number expressed as a product of prime numbers
Lowest Terms
When the numberator and denominator are relatively prime
LCM
Least Common Multiple
Ratio
A cinoarusib if twi quantities
Rate
When two quantities have two different units of measure (not convertable)
Proportion
A statement of equality between two ratios
Percent
A ratio of a number to 100
BPQ
Basic Percent Question
Principle
Amount Borrowed
Interest Rate
Percent fee per year
Interest
Amount of fee
Total to be repaid
Principle and interest
Point
Exact location in space (infinitly small)
Line
Infinitly long (infinitly thin) straight path made up of points
Plane
Intfinitly thin, never-ending flat surface
Axiom
A (mathematical) statement which we accept as true without proof that cannot be disproved (a counterexample cannot be found)
Line Segment
Part of a line with two endpoint
Ray
Part of a line with one endpoint
Collineer
When two or more points lay on a common line
Parallel Lines
Two or more lines which never intersect, and on the same plane
Skew
Two line which never intercect and are not on the same plane
(Geometric) Intersection
Points in common
Angle
Two rays with a common endpoint (a vertex)
(1) Degree
1/360 of a complete rotation (x°)
Acute Angle
An angle >0° and <90°
Right Angle
An angle =90°
Obtuse Angle
An angle >90° and <180°
Straight Angle
An angle =180°
Reflex Angle
An angle >180° and <360°
Perpendicular
When two lines intersect at right angles
Adjacent Angles
Two angles which share a common vertex, a common ray, and do not overlap
Theorem
A mathematical statement which we can prove to be true
Complementary Angle
When the sum of the measures of a pair of angles add up to 90°
Supplementary Angle
When the sum of the measures of a pair of angles add up to 180°
Vertical Angles
Two nonadjacent angles formed by two intersecting lines
Congruent Segments
Equal length
Transversal
A line which intersects two given lines in a plane
Corresponding Angles
A pair of angles which are on the same side of the transversal, one must be interior, one must be extirior, and they must be nonadjacent
Alternative Interior Angles
A pair of angles which are both interior, different sides of the transversal and nonadjacent
Polygon
A closed figure made up of line segments with no interior reflex angles
Regular Polygon
A polygon with congruent sides and congruent angles
Triangle
A polygon with 3 sides
Quadrilateral
A polygon with 4 sides
Pentagon
A polygon with 5 sides
Hexagon
A polygon with 6 sides
septagon (heptagon)
A polygon with 7 sides
octagon
A polygon with 8 sides
nonagon
A polygon with 9 sides
decigon
A polygon with 10 sides
ondecagon
A polygon with 11 sides
dodecagon
A polygon with 12 sides
13-gon
A polygon with 13 sides
Perimeter (of a polygon)
the sum of the length of the sides
Regular Triangle (equilateral triangle) (equiangular triangle)
3 congruent sides
Isosceles Triangle
A triangle with at least two congruent sides
Scalene Triangle
No congruent sides
Right Triangle
A triangle with one right angle
Obtuse Triangle
A triangle with one obtuse angle
Acute Triangle
A triangle with three acute angles
Parallelogram
A quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel, both pairs of opposite angles congrent, and both pairs of opposite sides congruent
Rhombus
A parallelogram with all congruent sides
Rectangle
A parallelogram with all congruent angles
Square
A parallelogram with all congruent sides and angles
Trapezoid
A quadrilateral with exactly one pair of parallel sides (the bases)
Isosceles Trapeziod
A trapezoid with congruent legs
Circle
The set of all points which are equidistant from a given point on a plane
Radius (r)
(length of) Segment from the center to any point on the circle
Chord
A segment with endpoints on the circle
Diameter (d)
A chord which passes through the center
Central Angle
Sides are radii and vertex is the center
Circumference (C)
Distance around a circle
Arc
A part of a circle
Pi (∏)
Ration of C/d for any circle (non-terminating, non-repeating value)
Line Reflection
A flip or mirror image
Line Symmetry (Reflectional Symmetry)
When there exists at least one line for which one side is the mirror image of the other
Translation
Moves each point of a figure the same distance, in the same direction
Rotation
Moves each point of a figure to its image my rotating about a fixed point in a plane (counterclockwise)
Algebra
Uses variables to represent unkown numbers
Algebraic Term
Any product of numbers and variables
Algebraic Expression
One or more algebraic terms which are connected by addition and or subraction
Like Terms
Terms in which all variables and their corresponding exponents are exactly the same (coefficents may differ)
Algebraic Equation
A statement of equality between two algebraic expressions
Solution
Vaule(s) which make the statement true
OAASA
Only an Algebraic Solution Accepted
Consecutive Integers
Integers in increasing counting order
Area
Amount of space taken up by a two-dimensional figure
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