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Terms in this set (45)
It is a fluid-filled network of tubes (orvessels) through which oxygen and nutrients move between the environment and the cells of a multicellular animal
Open Circulatory System (D)
Where blood (hemolymph) suffuses the body, may be directly open to the environment (hemocoel), and is not pressurized.
Open Circulatory System (E)
Arthropods and most mollusks except for Cephalopoda.
Closed Circulatory System (D)
This more complex system consists primarily of blood, the heart and a network of blood vessels. The main functions of the circulatory system are gas exchange, hormone and nutrient distribution, and waste elimination.
Closed Circulatory System (E)
The heart is a cone shaped organ. It is located between the lungs directly behind the sternum and is tilted so that the apex (the pointed end) is oriented to the left.
The wall of tissue divides the heart in half
The Heart's Chambers
The human heart contains muscular chambers. The four chambers are the right atrium, the left atrium, the right ventricle, and the left ventricles.
The Right Atrium
The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the Suprerior and Inferior Vena Cava. It then pumps blood into the right ventricle, through the Tricuspid valve.
The Left Atrium
The left Atrium receive oxygenated blood from the Pulmonary Vein, which it brings to the left Ventricle through the Bicuspid or Mitral Valve.
The Right Ventricle
The right ventricle then pumps the blood to the lungs using the Pulmonary Arteries and the Semilunar Pulmonary Valve.
The Left Ventricle
The Left Ventricle then brings it to the different parts of the body using the Aorta, through the Semilunar Aortic Valve.
the Bicuspid or Mitral Valve and the Tricuspid Valve are controlled by the Chordae Tendenae
The Biscuspid Valve
Also know as the Mitral Valve and is located between the left Atrium and Left Ventricle
The Tricuspid Valve
Is located between the Left Atrium and Left Ventricle
Semilunar Aortic Valve
Is located at the exit of the Left Ventricle and is controlled by blood pressure
Pulmonary Aortic Valve
Is located at the exit of the Right Ventricle and is controlled by blood pressure
Blood is fluid tissue made up of 55% liquid and 45% solid components, and is used to transport the mediums
Blood plasma is what makes up for the liquid component of the blood. It is made up of 90% yellowish liquid, which is used for there to flow, while 10% is dissolved materials.
Food molecules, vitamins, minerals, hormones,
proteins, and waste products
Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells
hey make up for about 99% of Blood's cellular components. They are used to transport oxygen to the different parts of the body, and loss their nucleus at maturity for more effective delivery; however, because of this Erythrocytes have a short life span.
Hemoglobin is complex protein madeup of four protein strands, plus iron-richheme groups. Each hemoglobin molecule can carry four oxygen atoms. The presence of oxygen turns hemoglobin bright red, which is why deoxygenated blood is a dark red.
Leukocytes or White Blood Cells
Leukocytes are cells that defend against diseases by recognising proteins, which belong to the body, and protein, which do not. White cells are able to ooze through the walls of capillaries to patrol the tissues and reach the lymph system.
Five Types of Leukocytes
The types with granular shapes are neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil, while the types with agranular shapes are monocytes and lymphocytes.
Netrophil fight against bacteria and fungal infections
Eosinophil fight against parasitic infections.
Basophil releases histamine during alergic reactions
Monocytes differentiates into macrophages, which can also perform phagocytosis,
Lymphocytes defend against disease causing pathegens, and detects non-self cells.
Thrombocytes or Platlettes
Cell fragments used in blood clotting. Platlettes also lack a nucleus like the Erythrocytes, and therefore, have a short lifespane.
Thrombocytes aggregate the site of the wound and, with the broken cells, release chemicals to stimulate thrombin production. Thrombin convertsthe protein fibrinogeninto sticky fibrin, which binds the clot.
A vast network which carries blood to and from the heart
They carry blood away from the heart. Arteries are lined with smooth muscle and have thick walls, due to the presence of blood pressure.
Arterioles are simply branched out arteries. They can constrict to direct and control bloodflow.
Veins have thinner walls than arteries, but has a wider lumen. Veins have fewer smooth muscle cells, but do have valves. In the lower extremities of the body, Veins are aided with the relaxation and contraction of the leg muscle in other to transport the blood.
Venules are just branched out veins, and are the counterpart of arterioles.
It allows nutrients and gases to diffuse between capillary walls and body. They are pathways of blood, with singulared celled walls. They only have 1 cell thick walls for there to be a more effecient exchange in gas, nutrients, etc.
Deoxygenated Blood (where)
Veins, Venules, Pulmonary Artery, Right Atrium, Right Ventricle
Blood that is oxygen-poor
Blood that carries an abundant amount of oxygen
Oxygenated Blood (where)
Arteries, Arterioles, Pulmonary Vein, Left Atrium, Left Ventricle
Pulmonary Circulation is where deoxygenated blood is taken to the lung in order to be oxygenated.
Pulmonary Circulation (process)
It initially begins in the right ventricle of the heart. The right ventricle pumps the blood to the pulmonary arteries, which bring the deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In the lungs, they exchange gases using the lung capillaries. Going back, it goes through the pulmonary veins, and is received by the left atrium.
The Systemic Track is where the oxygenated blood is taken to the different parts of the body.
Systemic Track (process)
It starts in the left ventricles, which pumps the blood to the aorta. The aorta then goes to smaller arteries then to arterioles. It then passes through the capillaries in different body parts and exchanges gases and more.
It then goes back to the heart using the veins, then the venules, and finally the superior & inferior vena cava (depending which part of the body it came from). It is then received by the right atrium and the cycle begins again.
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