Terms in this set (27)
Study of heredity
Gregor Johann Mendel
Father of genetics, an austrian monk whose work with pea plants laid the foundation for genetics
Unit of heredity; a section of DNA sequence encoding a singke protein
Alternative forms of a gene
A fixed location on a strand of DNA where a gene or on of ita alleles is located
Allele of a gene that maskes or supresses the expression of an alternate allele
An allele that is masked by a dominant allele
The genetic makeuo of an organism
Physical appearance of an organism
Having identical genes (one from each parent) for a particular characteristic
Having two different genes for a particular charcateristic
A genetic cross involving a singke pair of genes (one trait); parents differ by a singke trait
Principle of segregation
That alleles of a gene separate when gametes are formed
Principle of independent assortment
Segregation of alleles of one gene is independent of the segregation of alleles of another gene during gamete formation
Chance of getting a particular outcome over all possible outcomes
In incomplete domninance, neither allele is dominant over the other. In the case that it is a heterozygous genotype, the phenotype would be the intermediate between the two homozygous phenotypes.
When the trait observes codominance, a heterozygous phenotype will have both phenotypes visible. In codominance, both alleles are equally dominant and hence are expressed at the same time.
When a trait has Multiple Alleles, there is more than two alleles possible for a given gene; however, a person can only have two of the possible traits. In terms of dominance, and recessiveness, there is a hierarchy between the alleles, in which one cell is dominance over all the others.
Polygenic Trait occurs when a trait is controlled by more than one gene, where each dominant allele "adds" to the expression of the next dominant allele.
Genes that are carried by either sex chromosome
Pair of chromosomes that determines whether an individual is a male or female
Genes carried on Y chromosome this include a gene that produces hairy ears.
Genes carried on the X chromosome this includes Hemophilia , Colorblindness, Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
The gene is not on a sex
chromosome, but sex affects
the expression of the
Sex-Influenced Traits (E)
An example is Pattern Baldness, which is dominant in males and recessive in women
These are expressed in one sex but not
the other, usually due to anatomical or
Sex-Limited Traits (E)
Example: the ability to produce milk, the susceptibility of prostate cancer is limited to men, Bright plumage in male birds, the growth of beard in males, the colorful tail feather in peacocks, and manes in male lions
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