Terms in this set (167)

109.
(p. 467) Briefly discuss the traits associated with "bad leadership."


Valuable insights are gained by examining ineffective leaders. Some of these traits are:

1. Incompetent. The leader and at least some followers lack the will or skill (or both) to sustain effective action. With regard to at least one important leadership challenge, they do not create positive change.
2. Rigid. The leader and at least some followers are stiff and unyielding. Although they may be competent, they are unable or unwilling to adapt to new ideas, new information, or changing times.
3. Intemperate. The leader lacks self-control and is aided and abetted by followers who are unwilling or unable effectively to intervene.
4. Callous. The leader and at least some followers are uncaring and unkind. Ignored or discounted are the needs, wants, and desires of most members of the group or organization, especially subordinates.
5. Corrupt. The leader and at least some followers lie, cheat, or steal. To a degree that exceeds the norm, they put self-interest ahead of the public interest.
6. Insular. The leader and at least some followers minimize or disregard the health and welfare of "the other," that is, those outside the group or organization for which they are directly responsible.
7. Evil. Evil leaders such as Adolf Hitler and Saddam Hussein encourage their followers to commit atrocities. They tend to use pain as an instrument of power. The harm done to men, women, and children is severe rather than slight. The harm can be physical, psychological, or both.
109.
(p. 467) Briefly discuss the traits associated with "bad leadership."


Valuable insights are gained by examining ineffective leaders. Some of these traits are:

1. Incompetent. The leader and at least some followers lack the will or skill (or both) to sustain effective action. With regard to at least one important leadership challenge, they do not create positive change.
2. Rigid. The leader and at least some followers are stiff and unyielding. Although they may be competent, they are unable or unwilling to adapt to new ideas, new information, or changing times.
3. Intemperate. The leader lacks self-control and is aided and abetted by followers who are unwilling or unable effectively to intervene.
4. Callous. The leader and at least some followers are uncaring and unkind. Ignored or discounted are the needs, wants, and desires of most members of the group or organization, especially subordinates.
5. Corrupt. The leader and at least some followers lie, cheat, or steal. To a degree that exceeds the norm, they put self-interest ahead of the public interest.
6. Insular. The leader and at least some followers minimize or disregard the health and welfare of "the other," that is, those outside the group or organization for which they are directly responsible.
7. Evil. Evil leaders such as Adolf Hitler and Saddam Hussein encourage their followers to commit atrocities. They tend to use pain as an instrument of power. The harm done to men, women, and children is severe rather than slight. The harm can be physical, psychological, or both.
103.
(p. 330, 332, 333) Contrast the rational and the normative models of decision making. What are the assumptions of each?


The rational model of decision making proposes that managers use a rational, four-step sequence when making decisions: identifying the problem, generating alternative solutions, selecting a solution, and implementing and evaluating the solution. This model assumes managers are completely objective and possess complete information. This model is prescriptive, outlining a logical process that managers should use when making decisions. As such, the rational model is based on the notion that managers optimize when making decisions. Optimizing involves solving problems by producing the best possible solution and is based on a set of highly desirable assumptions—having complete information, leaving emotions out of the decision-making process, honestly and accurately evaluating all alternatives, time and resources are abundant and accessible, and people are willing to implement and support decisions. Simon's normative model attempts to identify the process that people actually use when making decisions. It assumes that the decision maker operates under conditions of bounded rationality. Bounded rationality represents the idea that decision makers are restricted by a variety of constraints when making decisions. The normative model assumes people satisfice in the decision making process. Satisficing consists of choosing a solution that meets some minimum qualifications, producing a solution that is satisfactory as opposed to optimal. The garbage can model assumes that organizational decision making is a sloppy and haphazard process. According to the garbage can model, decisions result from a complex interaction between four independent streams of events: problems, solutions, participants, and choice opportunities.
103.
(p. 330, 332, 333) Contrast the rational and the normative models of decision making. What are the assumptions of each?


The rational model of decision making proposes that managers use a rational, four-step sequence when making decisions: identifying the problem, generating alternative solutions, selecting a solution, and implementing and evaluating the solution. This model assumes managers are completely objective and possess complete information. This model is prescriptive, outlining a logical process that managers should use when making decisions. As such, the rational model is based on the notion that managers optimize when making decisions. Optimizing involves solving problems by producing the best possible solution and is based on a set of highly desirable assumptions—having complete information, leaving emotions out of the decision-making process, honestly and accurately evaluating all alternatives, time and resources are abundant and accessible, and people are willing to implement and support decisions. Simon's normative model attempts to identify the process that people actually use when making decisions. It assumes that the decision maker operates under conditions of bounded rationality. Bounded rationality represents the idea that decision makers are restricted by a variety of constraints when making decisions. The normative model assumes people satisfice in the decision making process. Satisficing consists of choosing a solution that meets some minimum qualifications, producing a solution that is satisfactory as opposed to optimal. The garbage can model assumes that organizational decision making is a sloppy and haphazard process. According to the garbage can model, decisions result from a complex interaction between four independent streams of events: problems, solutions, participants, and choice opportunities.
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