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COG PSYCH 10, 11, 12, 13 & 14
Terms in this set (74)
The sentence "John put the ice cream in the _____" creates an expectation for a particular word. This is an example of
a high-constraint sentence.
What is the first stage in Carpenter and Daneman's model of the stages involved in sentence comprehension?
fixate and encode the next word
As infants grow older, they become better at discriminating sounds
Neither of these
Carpenter and Daneman's model of sentence comprehension involves
pattern recognition, then retrieving meaning from LTM, then integration with the meaning of the prior context.
Phrase-structure rules can account for the two interpretations of which of the following?
Although Hannibal sent troops over a week ago
Saying "walked fatser" instead of "walked faster" is an example of a
Which of the following conditions interferes with word recognition?
an unexpected word in a high-constraint sentence
Chomsky's formulation of language learning does not utilize
Which of the following correctly describes the paired-associate theory of language learning?
Each word in a sentence serves as a stimulus for the next word.
Which of the following is supported by Kuhl's research on the development of speech recognition?
As early as 6 months, infants form prototypes to represent the phonemes in their language.
Exchange errors, in which two linguistic units are substituted, occur
at the same level in the hierarchy, indicating that language is hierarchically organized.
causes difficulty with tests that involve the semantic content of words.
Un, ly, and s are all examples of
Examples of error-recovery heuristics in the Carpenter and Daneman model do not include
checking for grammatical inconsistencies.
Kieras demonstrated the usefulness of being able to build directly on old information by contrasting memory for two paragraphs that differed in
the order of the sentences.
According to Bower's findings which of the following should be least remembered after reading a story about going to a restaurant?
the color of the menu
Propositions in Kintsch's model of comprehension divide the text into
meaningful units consisting of several words.
Prior knowledge causes the greatest number of false recognitions of story content for
high-related sentences after a long delay.
False recall of information concerning a robbery increased when
Both a and b
Kintsch found that the readability of a paragraph is primarily determined by
word frequency and the number of reinstatement searches.
Bransford and Johnson found that presenting a suitable context after people read an abstract passage
improved recall in neither case.
Kintsch introduced the notion of a situation model in order to
use language as a set of instructions for constructing a mental representation of the situation.
Anderson and Pichert found that asking people to shift perspectives increased
A situation model is constructed from
Both prior knowledge and text information
Which of the following does not belong with regard to facilitating integration of details?
using inferences to connect ideas
According to Gernsbacher's (1997) Structure Building Framework, which sentence of a paragraph do people usually read most slowly, and why?
the first, because they are laying a foundation for the ideas that follow
According to Thorndyke (1977), story structure consists of all except which of the following?
According to Kintsch's model of comprehension, text can be represented as a semantic network consisting of
Causal connections in a text determine
what people recall.
what people would include in a summary.
how quickly people can retrieve information.
According to Greeno's classification, which of the following is an example of an inducing structure problem?
Metcalfe found that subjects' ratings revealed that they thought they were not making progress until the very end when solving
Moving matchsticks to form true arithmetic statements illustrates that successful solutions require overcoming
The tendency to perceive an object only in terms of its most common use is called
For which pair of problems is it possible to use analogy?
attack-dispersion and radiation problems
According to Greeno's classification, which of the following is an example of a transformation problem?
missionaries and cannibals
What does the table of connections in the General Problem Solver connect?
differences between problem states with operators
Analogical transfer is to _____ as representational transfer is to _____.
The simulation model developed by Simon and Reed assumes that people benefited from a subgoal because they
switched sooner to a more efficient strategy.
Which of the following does not belong?
Newell and Simon
Computer simulation program
Measure of sufficiency
*What is a search space?
a list of all the different ways the subject can obtain solution-relevant information
Which of the following information processing characteristics were mentioned in Newell and Simon's theory of problem solving?
capacity of STM
storage time into LTM
retrieval time from LTM
Which of the following does not belong?
applying means-end analysis
is a form of discovery.
usually occurs after repeated unsuccessful solutions.
Sternberg's model for solving inducing structure problems includes all but which of the following?
The findings from Silver's (1981) study of the categorization of math problems in seventh graders indicates
good math problem solvers categorized the problems on the basis of structure.
The most successful condition for stimulating the invention of creative products occurred when the instructions specified
Both a particular category and a set of parts
Pragmatic reasoning schemata are
general knowledge structures that evaluate practical situations.
In Gick's general model of solving problems, activation of a schema next allows the problem solver to
implement a solution.
Griggs and Cox's memory retrieval explanation of conditional reasoning was supported by their finding that American subjects performed better on a concrete task if it required
evaluating a drinking-age rule.
A disadvantage in showing people examples before asking them to generate unusual products is that people
produce products that are too similar to the examples.
The findings of Wason and Johnson-Laird suggest that people usually
incorrectly test abstract logical statements by searching for confirming evidence.
Solving for a variety of unknowns, rather than a single unknown, encourages use of a _____ strategy.
Seeking permission and fulfilling an obligation are examples of
pragmatic reasoning schemata
The Geneplore model might be criticized for ignoring
the effect of goals on guiding the initial generations.
One major difference between the study of expertise and the study of creativity is that
creative solutions must be novel, as well as useful.
Sternberg (1998) lists several characteristics of expertise. Which is not one of those listed?
a strong need for recognition
A difference in biographical and laboratory studies of creativity is that laboratory studies de-emphasize the importance of
Robert Sternberg (1998) has argued that abilities reflect developing expertise. The important implication of this is that
abilities, like expertise, can be taught.
Which statement best describes how problem-solving ability influences how seventh-grade students classify algebra word problems?
Good problem solvers use mathematical structure and poor problem solvers use story context.
Utility is the
subjective value of an outcome.
Lowenstein & Issacharoff (1994) gave subjects mugs and found that
those that thought they earned the mug placed a higher selling price on it.
A descriptive decision theory is
one that describes the way people usually do make decisions.
The study of the risk dimensions of gambles has revealed that people
place more emphasis on some risk dimensions than others.
A normative procedure for combining probabilities and values is called
Which of the following does not belong?
Subjective expected utility differs from expected values because it uses
Neither probabilities nor values
In order to calculate expected value, it is necessary to know
the probability of events.
When you respond that there are more words in the English language that begin with the letter K than have the letter K in the third position, you are demonstrating an error due to the _____ heuristic.
Payne found that as people eliminated alternatives in a choice task they shifted from
a less demanding strategy to a more demanding strategy.
Cultural differences among nations primarily show differences in
perceptions of risk.
Which of the following is an example of a compensatory model?
A duplex gamble is used to study the attractiveness of different gambles because it allows the experimenter to independently manipulate
the probability of winning and the probability of losing.
States have increased the sale of lottery tickets by
increasing the amount of a win.
Which decision model considers the differential importance of the attributes?
Which heuristic refers to the fact that we tend to group choices and make judgements based on dominant features?
Joe is 10-years-old. His parents have him take an IQ test and discover that his IQ is 80;. How would you describe Joe's IQ?
connectionist networks can explain generalization of learning
Which perspective most clearly emphasizes that behavior is influenced by situational demands as well as by enduring inner personal factors?
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