the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. (For example, intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other participants and circumstances
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations trying to manipulate and control the situation
a statistical of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the others
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables.
the perception of a relationship where none exists
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants the experimenter controls other relevant factors
an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
an effect on behavior caused by a placebo
the condition of a n experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
the experimental factor-in psychology, the behavior or mental process-that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
the most frequently occurring score in a distribution
the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
a statistical criterion for rejecting the assumption of no differences in a particular study
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people are transmitted from one generation to the next