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33 terms

Myers Exploring Psychology Chapter 1

keywords from chapter 1 of Myers 6th edition
STUDY
PLAY
empiricism
the view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment.
structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind
functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish.
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
naturalistic observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
correlation coefficient
A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
experiment
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
placebo
an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug evaluation studies.
placebo effect
Any effect on behavior caused by a placebo
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
random assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
independent variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
dependent variable
The experimental factor - in psychology, the behavior or mental process - that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
SQ3R
a study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review.