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AP Psychology: Chapter 14
The pattern of psychological and behavioral characteristics by which a person can be compared and contrasted to others.
Freud's view that personality is based on the interplay of unconscious mental processes.
The roles of learning and cognition in shaping human behavior.
Emphasis on personality as a reflection of growth and the search for meaning in life.
The unconscious portion of personality that contains basic impulses and urges.
The psychic energy contained in the id.
The id's operating principle, which guides people towards whatever feels good.
The part of the personality that mediates conflicts between and among the demands of the id, the superego, and the real world.
The operating principle of the ego that creates compromises between the id's demands and those of the real world.
The component of personality that tells people what they should and should not do.
Psychological responses that help protect a person from anxiety and guilt.
The first of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, in which the mouth is the center of pleasure and conflict.
The second of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, usually occurring during the second year of life, in which the focus of pleasure and conflict shifts from the mouth to the anus.
The third of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, in which the focus of pleasure and conflict shifts to the genital area.
A pattern described by Freud in which a boy has sexual desire for his mother and wants to eliminate his father's competition for her attention.
A pattern described by Freud in which a girl develops an attachment to her father and competes with her mother for his attention.
The fourth of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, in which sexual impulses lie dormant.
The last of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, which begins during adolescence, when sexual impulses appear at the conscious level.
A perspective in which personality is seen as a combination of characteristics that people display over time and across situations.
Five trait dimensions found in many factor-analytic studies of personality: Neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
An approach in which personality is seen as the patterns of thinking and behavior that a person learns.
Analyzing behavior by studying what responses occur under what conditions of operant reward and punishment.
According to Bandura, learned expectations about the probability of success in given situations.
According to Rogers, an innate inclination toward growth that motivates all people.
The way one thinks of oneself.
Conditions of Worth
According to Rogers, the feelings an individual experiences when the person, instead of the person's behavior, is evaluated.
According to Maslow, a preoccupation with perceived needs for things a person does not have.
According to Maslow, a tendency to draw satisfaction from what is available in life, rather than to focus on what is missing.
Inner clashes among the three personality components.
Contains the memories we have inherited from our human and non-human ancestors.
A tendency to reflect on one's own experiences.
A tendency to focus on the social world.
Horney's theory that all men are jealous of a woman's ability to have a child.
Behavioral Inhibition System
Brain regions that affect sensitivity to potential punishment and the motivation to being punished.