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35 terms

AP Psychology: Chapter 14

STUDY
PLAY
Personality
The pattern of psychological and behavioral characteristics by which a person can be compared and contrasted to others.
Psychodynamic Approach
Freud's view that personality is based on the interplay of unconscious mental processes.
Social-Cognitive Approach
The roles of learning and cognition in shaping human behavior.
Humanistic Approach
Emphasis on personality as a reflection of growth and the search for meaning in life.
Id
The unconscious portion of personality that contains basic impulses and urges.
Libido
The psychic energy contained in the id.
Pleasure Principle
The id's operating principle, which guides people towards whatever feels good.
Ego
The part of the personality that mediates conflicts between and among the demands of the id, the superego, and the real world.
Reality Principle
The operating principle of the ego that creates compromises between the id's demands and those of the real world.
Superego
The component of personality that tells people what they should and should not do.
Defense Mechanisms
Psychological responses that help protect a person from anxiety and guilt.
Oral Stage
The first of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, in which the mouth is the center of pleasure and conflict.
Anal Stage
The second of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, usually occurring during the second year of life, in which the focus of pleasure and conflict shifts from the mouth to the anus.
Phallic Stage
The third of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, in which the focus of pleasure and conflict shifts to the genital area.
Oedipus Complex
A pattern described by Freud in which a boy has sexual desire for his mother and wants to eliminate his father's competition for her attention.
Electra Complex
A pattern described by Freud in which a girl develops an attachment to her father and competes with her mother for his attention.
Latency Period
The fourth of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, in which sexual impulses lie dormant.
Genital Stage
The last of Freud's psycho-sexual stages, which begins during adolescence, when sexual impulses appear at the conscious level.
Trait Approach
A perspective in which personality is seen as a combination of characteristics that people display over time and across situations.
Big-Five Model
Five trait dimensions found in many factor-analytic studies of personality: Neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
Social-Cognitive Approach
An approach in which personality is seen as the patterns of thinking and behavior that a person learns.
Functional Analysis
Analyzing behavior by studying what responses occur under what conditions of operant reward and punishment.
Self-Efficacy
According to Bandura, learned expectations about the probability of success in given situations.
Actualizing Tendancy
According to Rogers, an innate inclination toward growth that motivates all people.
Self-Concept
The way one thinks of oneself.
Conditions of Worth
According to Rogers, the feelings an individual experiences when the person, instead of the person's behavior, is evaluated.
Deficiency Orientation
According to Maslow, a preoccupation with perceived needs for things a person does not have.
Growth Orientation
According to Maslow, a tendency to draw satisfaction from what is available in life, rather than to focus on what is missing.
Thanatos
Death instincts.
Psychodynamic Conflicts
Inner clashes among the three personality components.
Collective Unconscious
Contains the memories we have inherited from our human and non-human ancestors.
Introversion
A tendency to reflect on one's own experiences.
Extraversion
A tendency to focus on the social world.
Womb Envy
Horney's theory that all men are jealous of a woman's ability to have a child.
Behavioral Inhibition System
Brain regions that affect sensitivity to potential punishment and the motivation to being punished.