40 terms

human reproduction quiz

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What is the endocrine system?
system of ductless glands that deliver chemicals through the circulatory system, negative feedback (carried around the body and turn on and off glands around the body)
What are hormones?
chemicals made by the endocrine system
Where is testosterone produced and where is estrogen produced?
testosterone-is produced in the testes estrogen-is produced in the ovaries
What are secondary sex characteristics and what causes them?
changes in the body that occur during puberty: Examples in women- breast development, fat deposits around the body: Men-more muscle mass, facial hair
What is the penis?
organ for reproduction and urination
What is the scrotum?
area that holds the testes- it keeps them at the correct temperature
What is the testicles (testes)?
organ that makes sperm and testosterone
What is the seminiferous tubules?
area in the testicles where sperm are made
What is the Epididymis?
structure that hold sperm, sperm mature here for 18 hours and wait for ejactulation
What is the Vas deferens
tube that carry sperm to the urethra
What is the Seminal vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral (Cowper's gland)?
glands that make fluids for sperm-lubricating fluids and food
What is the Urethra?
tube in the penis where urine and sperm leave the body
What is ejaculation?
involuntary muscle contraction that force the sperm and fluids from the body
What is the path of the sperm?
sperm is made in the seminiferous tubles in the testes. They are stored in the epididymis for 18 hours to mature. They would then travel up through the vas deferens, picking up fluids from the seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral gland. It then goes through the urethra and exits the body through the top of the penis
Why can't a man urinate and ejaculate?
A valve closes at the base of the bladder where the urethra starts
What is the difference between sperm and semen?
Sperm are the gametes, and semen is the sperm and the fluids
How long does it take to make a sperm?
74 days
How many sperm are ejaculated at one time?
400,000,000
Why can only one sperm fertilize an egg?
The cell membrane on the egg changes so sperm can no longer penetrate
What is the ovaries?
reproductive organ, where eggs are matures and estrogen is made
What is the follicle?
egg sac in the ovary-where the egg will mature
What is the Fallopian tube or oviduct?
tube that is lined with cilia that takes the egg to the uterus-connects the ovary to the uterus
What is the uterus?
muscular pear shaped organ where implantation of an embryo occurs
What is the vagina?
birth canal-area where sperm would be deposited
What is the cervix?
narrow opening in the uterus
What is the path of the egg?
the egg matures in the follicle in the ovary. When mature it is released from the ovary and, travels through the oviduct into the uterus, where if fertilized it will implant
How many eggs are women born with and how many will she use in her life?
4 million, at puberty only 20,000 in each ovary-she will use only 400
Where must the egg be fertilized and why?
in the upper part of the fallopian tube, because the trip to the uterus take 5-7 days and the egg is alive for only 24 hours
What are the 4 stages of the menstrual cycle and briefly-what happens at each stage?
the menstrual cycle is the process by which a mature egg develops and leaves the ovaries. 1) follicle stage- egg starts to mature in the follicle and uterine lining grows 2) ovulation-about 14th day egg is released from the follicle 3) Corpus luteum stage-empty follicle makes progesterone to keep uterine wall growing 4)menstruation-the unfertilized egg and lining if the uterus pass from the body
How often does ovulation occur?
once a month, about every 28 days
When does the menstrual cycle begin?
puberty
When does the menstrual cycle permanently stop?
menopause (45-52)
What happens to an egg after if it has been fertilized?
it travels down to the uterus and implants
What happens to an egg after if it has not been fertilized?
it passes from the body with the lining of the uterus
Why does the menstrual cycle stop during pregnancy?
progesterone is produced that keeps the uterine wall intact. This process causes the egg not to be matured in the follicle
What is pregnancy?
begins on implantation-when an organism contains unborn young
What is ectopic pregnancy?
when the embryo implants somewhere else besides the uterus
What is the follicle?
egg sac in the ovary-where the egg will mature
What is implantation?
zygote attaches to the wall of the uterus
What is puberty?
time in adolescence when the reproductive system becomes fully functional